National Geographic : 1957 Jun
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY SIXTEENTH AND M STREETS NORTHWEST, WASHINGTON 6, D. C. MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR, President and Editor THOMAS W. McKNEW, Vice-President and Secretary ROBERT V. FLEMING, Treasurer MELVIN M. PAYNE, Senior Assistant Secretary HILLEARY F. HOSKINSON, Assistant Treasurer VERNON H. BREWSTER, Assistant Secretary WILLIAM H. McCAULEY, Assistant Treasurer ROBERT E. DOYLE, Assistant Secretary LYMAN J. BRIGGS, Chairman, Research Committee SIBYL PECK, Assistant to the Chairman of the Board ALEXANDER WETMORE, Vice-Chairman, Research Committee LEON J. CANOVA, Assistant to the Vice-Chairman HERMAN J. A . C. ARENS, Executive Assistant to the President and Editor GEORGE C. MARSHALL General of the Army Formerly Secretary of Defense CURTIS E. LEMAY Commander in Chief Strategic Air Command EMORY S. LAND Vice Admiral, U. S. Navy, Retired, Formerly President Air Transport Association LYMAN J. BRIGGS Director Emeritus, National Bureau of Standards LEONARD CARMICHAEL Secretary, Smithsonian I BOARD OF TRUSTEES GILBERT GROSVENOR Chairman of the Board, Formerly President, National Geographic Society, and Editor of Its Magazine (1899-1954) JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE Vice-Chairman of the Board, Formerly President and Editor, National Geographic Society (1954-1957) G< ROBERT V. FLEMING MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Chairman of the Board Editor, National Geographic Riggs National Bank Magazine THOMAS W. McKNEW LLOYD B. WILSON Vice-President and Secretary Honorary Chairman of the Board National Geographic Society Chesapeake and Potomac ALEXANDER WETMORE Telephone Companies Research Associate L. 0. COLBERT Smithsonian Institution Rear Admiral, U. S. Coast HUGH L. DRYDEN and Geodetic Survey, Retired Director, National Advisory BENJAMIN M. MCKELWAY Committee for Aeronautics Editor, The Washington Star CHARLES F. KETTERING Consultant and Director general Motors Corporation EARL WARREN Chief Justice of the United States H. RANDOLPH MADDOX Vice-President American Telephone and Telegraph Company WILLIAM E. WRATHER Director, U. S . Geological Survey, Retired ELISHA HANSON Lawyer and Naturalist institution JUAN T. TRIPPE LEROY A. LINCOLN ERNEST E. NORRIS President, Pan American Chairman of the Board Retired President World Airways Metropolitan Life Insurance Co. Southern Railway System Trustee Emeritus: WILLIAM V. PRATT, Admiral, U. S. Navy, Retired ORGANIZED FOR "THE INCREASE AND DIFFUSION OF GEOGRAPHIC KNOWLEDGE" To carry out the purposes for which it was founded 69 years ago, the National Geographic Society publishes the National Geographic Magazine monthly. Receipts are invested in The Magazine or expended to promote geographic knowledge. Articles and photographs are desired. For material The Magazine uses, generous remuneration is made. In addition to the editorial and photographic surveys con stantly being made, The Society has sponsored more than 100 scientific expeditions, some of which required years of field work to achieve their objectives. It has aided and encouraged exploration literally to the ends of the earth, having contributed to expeditions of Rear Admiral Robert E. Peary, discoverer of the North Pole, and Rear Admiral Richard E. Byrd, first man to fly over the North and South Poles. Photomapping the heavens to a depth of a billion light-years from Palomar Observatory, the National Geographic Society and California Institute of Technology have expanded the known universe at least 25 times and discovered tens of thou sands of giant star systems. This seven-year Sky Survey (1949-1956) has made available to observatories all over the world the most extensive sky atlas yet produced. In Russell Cave, Alabama, in 1956, an archeological expedi tion of The Society and the Smithsonian Institution excavated the oldest material of human origin yet found east of the Mississippi-charcoal from cooking fires of 8,000 years ago. The site revealed a unique record of man's occupancy from 6200 B. C. or earlier until aboutA. D. 1650. Finds included many artifacts, weapons, and the 4,000-year-old bones of a man and a dog. National Geographic exploration and scientific study made known to the world the natural wonders now preserved as Kat mai National Monument and Carlsbad Caverns National Park. The Society's notable expeditions pushed back the historic horizons of the Southwest to a period nearly eight centuries before Columbus by dating the vast ruins of Pueblo Bonito. In Mexico, The Society and the Smithsonian Institution, January 16, 1939, discovered the oldest dated work of man in the Americas. This stone is engraved, in Maya-like characters, November 4, 291 B.C . (Spinden correlation). It antedates by 200 years anything else in America bearing a date and reveals a great center of early American culture, previously unknown. On November 11, 1935, the stratosphere flight of the world's largest balloon, Explorer II, sponsored by The Society and the U. S. Army Air Corps, reached a world-record altitude of 72,395 feet. Capts. Albert W. Stevens and Orvil A. Anderson re corded scientific results of extraordinary value. The Society and individual members contributed $100,000 to help preserve for the American people the finest of Cali fornia's sequoias, the Giant Forest in Sequoia National Park. EXECUTIVE STAFF OF THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE Assistant Editors ROBERT LESLIE CONLY GEORGE W. LONG FRANC SHOR MASON SUTHERLAND Senior Editorial Staff BEVERLEY M. BOWIE ANDREW IH. BROWN ALLAN C. FISHER, JR. Foreign EditorialStaff W. ROBERT MOORE, Chief ]AVID S. BOYER LUIS GARDEN JEAN BOWIE SHOR IIOWELL WALKER Editorial Staff JOHN R. IIOO'PES JAY JOHNSTON STUART E. JONES NATHANIEL T. KENNEY SAMUEL W. MATTHEWS MATT C. McDADE CAROLYN B. PATTERSON JOHN SCOFIELD MERLE EVERY KENNETH F. WEAVER PETER T. WHITE RosE T. MACBRYDE, Asst. Editorial Research INEZ B. RYAN, Chief MARGARET G. BLEDSOE Geographic Research GEORGE CROSSETTE, Chief LOUISE F. ALTHOFF NEWTON V. BLAKESLEE MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR, EDITOR THOMAS W. McKNEW, VICE-PRESIDENT AND SECRETARY FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH, ASSOCIATE EDITOR Secretary's Staff Personnel Officer HERBERT T. HENDERSON Membership Administration SHELDON CARY Payroll Operations ESTHER M. LOHRER Accounting F. CHARLES BROWN, Chief Audito: C. VERNON SANDERS, Auditor Statistical Control EVERETT C. BROWN Cashier FRANK S. DELK Cost Control SARGENT C. ELLIOTT Purchasing JOHN P. M. JOHNSTON Administration WILLIAM T. BELL CHARLES F. ALTHO'F Membership Fulfillment RoY J. KLOCKENBRINK Supervisor of Accounts DELLA M. HURT Advertising GILBERT G. LA GORCE, Director JOHN F. CONNERY, Manager Chief Cartographer JAMES M. DARLEY Cartographic Staff NEWMAN BUMSTEAD, Asst. Chief IRVIN E. ALLEMAN JOHN J. BREHM WELLMAN CHAMBERLIN IICHARD DARLEY ATHOS D. GRAZZINI r APPHIA HIOLDSTOCK RALPH E. McALEER WALTER K. MORRISON Typographer C. E . RIDDIFORD Cartographic Artist WILLIAM PALMSTROM School Service RALPH GRAY, Chief WILLIAM C. BAUGHMAN ENRIQUE C. CANOVA SCOTT HART EDWARDS PARK News Service WINDSOR P. BOOTH, Chief LONNELLE AIKMAN Librarian ESTHER ANN MANION JULIA F. BANKS, Asst. Printing Production DEE JAMES ANDELLA JOE M. BARLETT IllustrationsEditor WALTER MEAYERS EDWARDS Assistant IllustrationsEditors KIP ROBS ANDREW POGGENI'OHL HERBERT S. WILBURN, JR. Illustrations Staff CHARLES ALLMON ROBERT L. BREEDEN WILBUR E. GARRETT LEONARD J. GRANT GILBERT M. GROSVENOR GIFFORD D. HIAMPSIlRE IGERALDINE LINDER CARO STILLWELL, Librarian Staff Artist and Naturalist WALTER A. WEBER Staff Photographers B. ANTHONY STEWART, Chief WILLARD R. CULVER JOHN E. FLETCHER BATES LITTLEHIALES DONALD MCBAIN KATHLEEN REVIS JOSEPH BAYLOR ROBERTS ROBERT '. SISSON VOLKMAR WENTZEL M. WOODBRIDGE WILLIAMS PhotographicLaboratory EDWIN L. WISHERD, Chief RICHARD H. STEWART, Asst. Chief Film Editor JOSEPH M. RIDEOUT Copyright © 1957by National Geographic Society, Washington, D. C . International Copyright secured. All rights reserved. Quedan reservados todos los derechos. Printed in U. S. A. Entered at the Post Office at Washington, D. C ., as Second Class Mail Matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Sec. 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, authorized July 1, 1918. Cover design and names registered in United States Patent Office. Marca Registrada.