National Geographic : 1957 Jul
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY SIXTEENTH AND M STREETS NORTHWEST, WASHINGTON 6, D. C. MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR, President and Editor THOMAS W. McKNEW, Vice-President and Secretary ROBERT V. FLEMING, Treasurer MELVIN M. PAYNE, Senior Assistant Secretary HILLEARY F. HOSKINSON, Assistant Treasurer VERNON H. BREWSTER, Assistant Secretary WILLIAM H. McCAULEY, Assistant Treasurer ROBERT E. DOYLE, Assistant Secretary LYMAN J. BRIGGS, Chairman, Research Committee SIBYL PECK, Assistant to the Chairman of the Board ALEXANDER WETMORE, Vice-Chairman, Research Committee LEON J. CANOVA, Assistant to the Vice-Chairman HERMAN J. A . C. ARENS, Executive Assistant to the President and Editor BOARD OF GILBERT C Chairman of the Board, F Geographic Society, and Edit GEORGE C. MARSHALL JOHN OLIVE General of the Army Vice-Chairman of the Board, Formerly Secretary of Defense National Geograph CURTIS E. LEMAY ROBERT V. FLEMING Commander in Chief Chairman of the Board Strategic Air Command Riggs National Bank EMORY S. LAND THOMAS W. MCKNEW Vice Admiral, U. S . Navy, Vice-President and Secretar Retired, Formerly President National Geographic Societ Air Transport Association ALEXANDER WETMORE LYMAN J. BRIGGS Research Associate Director Emeritus, National Smithsonian Institution Bureau of Standards HUGH L. DRYDEN LEONARD CARMICHAEL Director, National Advisor Secretary, Smithsonian Committee for Aeronautics Institution CONRAD L. WIRTH JUAN ' Director, National President, Park Service World Trustee Emeritus: WILLIAM V. ORGANIZED FOR "THE INCREASE AND I To carry out the purposes for which it was founded 69 years ago, the National Geographic Society publishes the National Geographic Magazine monthly. Receipts are invested in The Magazine or expended to promote geographic knowledge. Articles and photographs are desired. For material The Magazine uses, generous remuneration is made. In addition to the editorial and photographic surveys con stantly being made, The Society has sponsored more than 100 scientific expeditions, some of which required years of field work to achieve their objectives. It has aided and encouraged exploration literally to the ends of the earth, having contributed to expeditions of Rear Admiral Robert E. Peary, discoverer of the North Pole, and Rear Admiral Richard E. Byrd, first man to fly over the North and South Poles. Photomapping the heavens to a depth of a billion light-years from Palomar Observatory, the National Geographic Society and California Institute of Technology have expanded the known universe at least 25 times and discovered tens of thou sands of giant star systems. This seven-year Sky Survey (1949-1956) has made available to observatories all over the world the most extensive sky atlas yet produced. In Russell Cave, Alabama, in 1956, an archeological expedi tion of The Society and the Smithsonian Institution excavated the oldest material of human origin yet found east of the TRUSTEES 3ROSVENOR 'ormerly President, National tor of Its Magazine (1899-1954) ER LA GORCE Formerly President and Editor, ic Society (1954-1957) MELVILLE BELL GROSVEI Editor, National Geograph Magazine LLOYD B. WILSON y Honorary Chairman of the B y Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Companies L. O. COLBERT Rear Admiral, U. S. Coas and Geodetic Survey, Retir y BENJAMIN M. MCKELW Editor, The Washington St NO hic CHARLES F. KETTERING Consultant and Director General Motors Corporation )R EARL WARREN Chief Justice of the United States oard t ed 'AY tar H. RANDOLPH MADDOX Vice-President American Telephone and Telegraph Company WILLIAM E. WRATHER Director, U. S . Geological Survey, Retired ELISHA HANSON Lawyer and Naturalist . TRIPPE ERNEST E. NORRIS Pan American Retired President Airways Southern Railway System PRATT, Admiral, U. S. Navy, Retired )IFFUSION OF GEOGRAPHIC KNOWLEDGE" Mississippi-charcoal from cooking fires of 8,000 years ago. The site revealed a unique record of man's occupancy from 6200 B. C. or earlier until about A. D. 1650. Finds included many artifacts, weapons, and the 4,000-year-old bones of a man and a dog. National Geographic exploration and scientific study made known to the world the natural wonders now preserved as Kat mai National Monument and Carlsbad Caverns National Park. The Society's notable expeditions pushed back thie historic horizons of thie Southwest to a period nearly eight centuries before Columbus by dating the vast ruins of Pueblo Bonito. In Mexico, The Society and the Smithsonian Institution, January 16, 1939, discovered the oldest dated work of man in the Americas. This stone is engraved, in Maya-like characters, November 4, 291 B.C . (Spinden correlation). It antedates by 200 years anything else in America bearing a date and reveals a great center of early American culture, previously unknown. On November 11, 1935, the stratosphere flight of the world's largest balloon, Explorer II, sponsored by The Society and the U. S. Army Air Corps, reached a world-record altitude of 72,395 feet. Capts. Albert W. Stevens and Orvil A. Anderson re corded scientific results of extraordinary value. The Society and individual members contributed $100,000 to help preserve for the American people the finest of Cali fornia's sequoias, the Giant Forest in Sequoia National Park. EXECUTIVE STAFF OF THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE Assistant Editors ROBERT LESLIE CONLY GEORGE W. LONG FRANC SHOR MASON SUTHERLAND Senior EditorialStaff BEVERLEY M. BOWIE ANDREW H. BROWN ALLAN C. FISHER, JR. Foreign Editorial Staff W. ROBERT MOORE, Chief DAVID S. BOYER Luis MARDEN JEAN BOWIE SHOR HOWELL WALKER EditorialStaff JOHN R. IIOOPES JAY JOHNSTON STUART E. JONES NATHANIEL T. KENNEY SAMUEL W. MATTHEWS MATT C. McDADE CAROLYN B. PATTERSON JOHN SCOFIELD MERLE SEVERY KENNETH F. WEAVER PETER T. WHITE ROSE T. MACBRYDE, Asst. EditorialResearch INEZ B. RYAN, Chief MARGARET G. BLEDSOE Geographic Research GEORGE CROSSETTE, Chief LOUISE F. ALTHOFF NEWTON V. BLAKESLEE MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR, EDITOR THOMAS W. McKNEW, VICE-PRESIDENT AND SECRETARY FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH, ASSOCIATE EDITOR Secretary's Staff Personnel Officer HERBERT T. HENDERSON Membership Administration SHELDON CARY Payroll Operations ESTHER M. LOHRER Accounting F. CHARLES BROWN, Chief Audito C. VERNON SANDERS, Auditor Statistical Control EVERETT C. BROWN Cashier FRANK S. DELK Cost Control SARGENT C. ELLIOTT Purchasing JOHN P. M. JOHNSTON Administration WILLIAM T. BELL CHARLES F. ALTHOFF Membership Fulfillment ROY J. KLOCKENBRINK Supervisor of Accounts DELLA M. HURT Advertising GILBERT G. LA GORCE, Director JOHN F. CONNERY, Manager Chief Cartographer JAMES M. DARLEY CartographicStaff NEWMAN BUMSTEAD, Asst. Chief IRVIN E. ALLEMAN JOHN J. BREHM WELLMAN CHAMBERLIN RICHARD DARLEY ATHOS D. GRAZZINI r APPHIA HOLDSTOCK RALPH E. McALEER WALTER K. MORRISON Typographer C. E . RIDDIFORD Cartographic Artist WILLIAM PALMSTROM School Service RALPH GRAY, Chief SCOTT HART EDWARDS PARK News Service WINDSOR P. BOOTH, Chief LONNELLE AIKMAN FRANKLIN C. SARTWELL Librarian ESTHER ANN MANION JULIA F. BANKS, Asst. PrintingProduction DEE JAMES ANDELLA JOE M. BARLETT IllustrationsEditor WALTER MEAYERS EDWARDS Assistant Illustrations Editors KIP ROSS ANDREW POGGENPOHL HERBERT S. WILBURN, JR. Picture Editors CHARLES ALLMON ROBERT L. BREEDEN WILBUR E. GARRETT LEONARD J. GRANT MARY GRISWOLD GILBERT M. GROSVENOR GIFFORD D. HAMPSHIRE GERALDINE LINDER CARO STILLWELL, Librarian Staff Artist and Naturalist WALTER A. WEBER Staff Photographers B. ANTHONY STEWART, Chief THOMAS J. ABERCROMBIE WILLARD R. CULVER BATES LITTLEHALES DONALD McBAIN KATHLEEN REVIS JOSEPH BAYLOR ROBERTS ROBERT F. SISSON VOLKMAR WENTZEL M. WOODBRIDGE WILLIAMS PhotographicLaboratory EDWIN L. WISHERD, Chief RICHARD H. STEWART, Asst. Chief JOHN E. FLETCHER Film Editor JOSEPH M. RIDEOUT Copyright © 19657by National Geographic Society, Washington D. C. International Copyright secured. All rights reserved. Quedan reservados todos los derechos. Printed in U. S. A. Entered at the Post Office at Washington, D. C., as Second Class Mail Matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Sec. 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, authorized July 1, 1918. Cover design and names registered in United States Patent Office. Marca Registrada.