National Geographic : 1957 Aug
NATIONAL GE Society 16th & M Streets N.W . National Geographic Magazine ORGANIZED IN 1888 "O 00HE IN SE AND0DIFFUSIONjOFGEOGRAPHICKNOWLEDGE To increase knowledge, the National Geographic Society has con ducted 149 research projects and exploring expeditions literally to the ends of the earth. The Society diffuses knowledge through its monthly National Geographic Magazine and its books, nine million large color maps a year, bulletins for schools, and news releases on world events for press, radio, and television. MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR, President and Editor THOMAS W. McKNEW, Vice-President and Secretary ROBERT V. FLEMING, Treasurer MELVIN M. PAYNE, Senior Assistant Secretary LYMAN J. BRIGGS, Chairman, Research Committee ALEXANDER WETMORE, Vice-Chairman, Research Committee Board of Trustees GILBERT GROSVENOR Chairman of the Board, formerly President, National Geographic Society, and Editor of its Magazine (1899-1954) JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE Vice-Chairman of the Board, formerly President and Editor, National Geographic Society (1954-1957) LYMAN J. BRIGGS Director Emeritus, National Bureau of Standards LEONARD CARMICHAEL Secretary, Smithsonian Institution L. O . COLBERT Rear Admiral, U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, Retired HUGH L. DRYDEN Director, National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics ROBERT V. FLEMING Chairman of the Board Riggs National Bank MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Editor, National Geographic Magazine ELISHA HANSON Lawyer and Naturalist CHARLES F. KETTERING Consultant and Director General Motors Corporation EMORY S. LAND Vice-Admiral, U. S. Navy, Retired, formerly President Air Transport Association CURTIS E. LEMAY Vice-Chief of Staff United States Air Force GEORGE C. MARSHALL General of the Army, formerly Secretary of Defense BENJAMIN M. McKELWAY Editor, The Washington Star THOMAS W. MCKNEW Vice-President and Secretary National Geographic Society ERNEST E. NORRIS Retired President Southern Railway System JUAN T. TRIPPE President, Pan American World Airways EARL WARREN Chief Justice of the United States ALEXANDER WETMORE Research Associate Smithsonian Institution LLOYD B. WILSON Honorary Chairman of the Board Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Companies CONRAD L. WIRTH Director National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior WILLIAM E. WRATHER Director, U. S. Geological Survey, Retired H. RANDOLPH MADDOX r Vice-President Trustee Emeritus American Telephone WILLIAM V. PRATT and Telegraph Company Admiral, U. S. Navy, Retired Assistant Secretaries: Vernon H. Brewster, Robert E. Doyle Assistant Treasurers: Hilleary F. Hoskinson, William H. McCauley Herman J. A . C . Arens, Executive Assistant, and Carol Johnson, Secretary, to the President and Editor; Lenore Williams, Secretary to the Vice-President and Secretary; Sibyl Peck, Asst. to Chairman, and Leon J. Canova, Asst. to Vice-Chairman, of the Board. Copyright © 1957 by National Geographic Society, Washington, D. C. International copy right secured. Printed in U. S. A. Second class mail privileges authorized atWashington, D. C ., January 16, 1896. Cover design and title protected by international trademark. Articles and photographs are desired. For material used, generous remuneration is made. MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR, Editor THOMAS W. McKNEW, Vice-President & Secretary FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH, Associate Editor EDITORIAL STAFF Assistant Editors: Robert L. Conly, George W. Long, Franc Shor, Mason Sutherland. Senior Staff: Beverley M. Bowie, Andrew H. Brown, Allan C. Fisher, Jr. Foreign Staff: W. Robert Moore (Chief); David S. Boyer, Luis Marden, Jean Bowie Shor, Howell Walker, M. Woodbridge Williams (Naturalist). Editorial Staff: John R. Hoopes, Jay Johnston, Stuart E. Jones, Nathaniel T. Kenney, Samuel W. Matthews, Matt C. McDade, Carolyn B. Patterson, John Scofield, Kenneth F. Weaver, Peter T. White, Rose T. Mac Bryde (Asst.). School Service: Ralph Gray (Chief); Scott Hart, Edwards Park. News Service: Windsor P. Booth (Chief); Lonnelle Aikman, Frank Sartwell. Geographic Book Service: Merle Severy. Edit. Research: Inez B. Ryan, Margaret G. Bledsoe. Geographic Research: George Crossette, Louise F. Althoff, Newton V. Blakeslee. Librarians: Esther Ann Manion, Julia F. Banks. ILLUSTRATIONS STAFF Illustrations Editor: Walter Meayers Edwards. Asst. Illus. Editors: Kip Ross, Andrew Poggenpohl, Herbert S. Wilburn, Jr. Picture Editors: Charles Allmon, Robert L. Breeden, Wilbur E. Garrett, Leonard J. Grant, Mary S. Gris wold, Gilbert M. Grosvenor, Gifford D. Hampshire, Geraldine Linder, Caro Stillwell (Librarian). Engraving & Printing:Dee J. Andella, Joe M. Barlett. Artist & Naturalist: Walter A. Weber. Photographers: B. Anthony Stewart (Chief); Thomas J. Abercrombie, Willard R. Culver, Bates Littlehales, Kathleen Revis, Joseph B. Roberts, Robert F. Sisson, Volkmar Wentzel. Photo Lab.: Edwin L. Wisherd (Chief); Richard H. Stewart (Asst. Chief); John E. Fletcher, Donald McBain. Film Editor: Joseph M. Rideout. CARTOGRAPHIC STAFF Chief Cartographer: James M. Darley. Newman Bumstead (Asst. Chief); Irvin E. Alleman, John J. Brehm, Wellman Chamberlin, Richard Darley, Athos D. Grazzini, Apphia Holdstock, Ralph E. Mc Aleer, Walter K. Morrison. Typographer: C. E. Riddiford. Cartographic Artist: William Palmstrom. SECRETARY'S STAFF Personnel: Herbert T. Henderson. Membership: Shel don Cary. Payroll: Esther M. Lohrer. Accounting: F. Charles Brown, C. Vernon Sanders. Statistics: Everett C. Brown. Cashier: Frank S. Delk. Costs: Sargent C. Elliott. Purchasing: John P. M. Johnston. Administration: William T. Bell, Charles F. Althoff. Membership Fulfillment: Roy J. Klockenbrink. Ac count Records: Della M. Hurt. ADVERTISING Gilbert G. La Gorce (Director); John F. Connery (Manager); Regional Offices-New York: Harley L. McDevitt; Chicago: Leslie R. Gage; San Francisco: Donald F. Mikkelsen; Los Angeles: Jack V. Sheehan.