National Geographic : 1957 Sep
Society's Byrd Antarctic Expedition I, 1928-30 Byrd Antarctic Expedition II, 1933-35 United States Antarctic Service, 1939-41 United States Navy Antarctic Expedition Operation Highjump, 1946-47 United States Navy Operation Deep Freeze I, 1955-56 New Map Updates Antarctica T HE large National Geographic map of ANTARCTICA, published as a supple ment to this issue, is an accomplishment unique in the history of cartography. For the first time a general map, based on cur rent explorations, has been completed and published swiftly enough to be used on the scene by the explorers themselves.* Scientists and United States Navy men of Operations Deep Freeze I and II provided much of the new information on which the map is based. Next month, when ships and planes head south for Deep Freeze III, copies of the new map will go with them, an in valuable tool for further exploration. Bright flags rim the map, representing ten countries cooperating during the International Geophysical Year in a vast assault on this last geographical unknown. In a time of ten sion among nations, scientists of the United States, Russia, the British Commonwealth, Japan, and other nations are working together at 46 antarctic bases and pooling their find ings for the benefit of all mankind. New Data Flashed from South Pole As members receive their copies of the map, men of many countries living under the deep snows of Antarctica-including 18 Americans at the South Pole itself-are recording new information on temperatures, winds, magnetic storms, ice depths, and other scientific aspects of the polar continent. While Society cartographers were compiling the map, information radioed from these ant arctic bases was incorporated into its notes and physical features, sometimes within hours. A new elevation for the South Pole, 9,200 feet, came recently from Dr. Paul Siple and his men now living at the Pole. Similarly, results of seismic tests radioed out by U. S. scientists at Byrd Station a few weeks before the map went to press show, astonishingly, that the 5,000-foot-high icecap over Marie Byrd Land is nearly two miles thick. Its enormous weight has depressed the land nearly a mile below sea level! * Members may obtain additional copies of the new map of Antarctica (and of all standard maps pub lished by The Society) by writing to the National Geographic Society, Washington 6, D. C. Prices, post paid to all countries, 750 each on paper; $1.50 on fabric. Indexes to place names, available for this and most other maps, 50¢ each. All remit tances payable in U. S. funds. I.