National Geographic : 1959 Oct
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHI & ociety 16th & M Streets N.W. Washington 6, D. C . National Geographic Magazine O AIZD IN 18 "O TB E EE AD D O OF K The National Geographic Society is chartered in Washington, D. C ., in accordance with the laws of the I united State s as nonprofit scien tific and educational organization for increasing and diffusing ge-c graphic knwledge and promoting: research and explration. Tlie Socicty has conducted more than 16() major expeditions and scientific projects. It disseminates knowledge to millions through its world-famous National Geographic Magazine, its 17 million color maps a year. its books, mino:graphs. bulletins for schools, its information service for pIress,radi,l and teleision. MELVILLE BELL GRO)SVENOR. President and Editor THOMAS W. MtKNEWV. Executive Vice President and Secretary ROBERT V. FI .EMING. Vice President and Treasurer MEI.VIN M. PAYNE, Vice President and Associate Secretary FREDERICK (G.VOSBIL'RGH, Vice President ROBERT E. )DOYIE,Associate Secretary Committee for Research and Exploration LYMAN J. BRIGGS. Chairman ALEiXANDER WETMORE . LEONARDCARMICHIAEI. V ice Chairman Rear Adm. I. O. . COI.BERT WILLIAM E. RATHER HUGH L. DRYDEN A. REMINGTON KEI.I .O)GG Vice Adm. EMORY S. .AND Director, IT. S. National Museum and the Senior Officers of The Society Board of Trustees GILIBERT GROSVENOR, Chairman of the Board, formerly President. National Geographic Soc ietv and Editor of its Magazine (1899-19514) JOHN ()OLIVER LA GORCE. Vice Chairman of the Board, formerly President and Editor. National Geo(gaphic Socicty (1951-1957) LYMAN J. BRIGGS Director Emeritus. National Bureau of Standards SLEONARD CARMICHIAEL Secretary, Smithsonian Institution 1.. O . COLBERT. Aeronautics & Space Administration ROBERT V. FILEMIN G Chairman of the Board Riggs National Bank CRA\\VFORD H. GRI(ENI\\VALT President, F.. l.du Pont de Nemours & C ompan ME.IVI .1iEBEll. GROSVENOR Editor. National Geographic Magazine EI.ISHA tlANSON Las er and Naturalist EMORY S. LAND Vice Admiral, U. S. Navy, Retired, formerly President Air Transport Association CURT1S E. LIAMAY Vice Chief of Staff, U. S . Air Force IH. RANI)O()IPH MADI)OX Vice President. American Telephone & Telegraph Company GEORGE C. MARSHALl. General of the Armis Formerly Secretary oit Defense BENJAMIN M. iMcKEWI\AY Editr. the WVashington Star President. Associated Press THOMAS \\. McKN \\' Executive Vice Presidecnt National Geographic Society IMEIV IN M. PAYNE Vic I'Prcsident National Geographic Societt ILAURANCE S. ROCK FEI.1ER President, Rockefeller IBrthers, Inc., and Jackson Hole Preserve JUAN T. TRIPPE President. Pan American World Airways EARI. WARREN Chief Justice of the United States ALEXANDER WETMORE Research Associate Smithsonian Institution I.I .OYD B. WILSON Honorary Board Chairman. Chesa peake & Potolmac Telephone Co,. CONRA I) . W\IRTIll Director, National Park Seiv S. . Department of tle Interior \VIILI.AM E. WRA'I HER1 IirecttorU. S . Geological Sitres, Retired Assistant Secretaries: VERNON H. BRE\WSTER, THOMAS M. BEERS. \WII.IAM T. 1ELL, HERI ERT TI.HENDERSON; Assistant 'ireas. urers: HIll.EARY F. HOSKINSON, \\ILIIAM H. McCAUIEY Hermian J. A . C. Arens. Executive Assistant. and Carol J. Cramer. Secretary to the President and Editor: I.enore Williams, Secretary ti, the Executi e Vice Presildent; Sibyl Peck. Assistant to Chairman, and I.on J. Canva, Assistantto Vice Chairman, of the Board (i'r'c rigctc'iic N ti cnl(;ie',,ir hi ' i ty. Allright. resrt.ii Reiriihcti,''ii ruse it i... r i ti i i • t icc ci ,t'iio t ' cir' t ' cacti riaii - d. i enti'ccn rcic..cc itiii ' i, l d . i MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR. Editor THOMAS W. McKNEW. Executire Vice President FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH. Associate Editor EDITORIAL STAFF Senior Assistant Editor: Franc Shor Assistant Editors: Robert L. Conly. Allan C. Fisher, Jr., John Scoiield. Mason Sutherland Senior Staff: Andrew H. Brown. Nathaniel T. Kenney, I.uis Marden, Samuel W. Matthews. Kenneth F. Weaver, Paul A. Zahl (Natural Sciences) Foreign Staff: W. Robert Moore (Chief); Thomas J. Abercrombie, David S. Boyer. Walter Meavers Ed wards, Howell Walker, M. Woodbridge Williams Issue Editor: Jay Johnston Editorial Staff: Robert T. Cochran, Jr., William P. E . Graves, John R. Hoopes, Stuart E. Jones, Howard L.aFav, Edward J. Iinehan, Bart McDowell, Carolyn B. Patterson, Peter T. White; Rose T. MacBryde, Winifred M. Myers (Assts.), Dorothy M. Corson (Indexes) EditorialLa)out: Howard E. Paine School Serrice: Ralph Gray (Chief); Arthur P. Miller, Jr., Frank Sartwell Neuws Service: Windsor P. Booth (Chief); Lonnelle Aikman. Edward Cornish, Matt C. McDade Book Service: Merle Severy (Chief); Paul Jensen, Edwards Park Editorial Research: Margaret G. Bledsoe (Chief) ; Ann K. Holcomb (Asst.), Werner Janney. Levenia Loder, Patricia Middlemas, Patricia Rosenborg Geographic Research: George Crossette (Chief); Louise F. Althoff, Newton V. Blakeslee Library: Esther Ann Manion (Librarian); Virginia Carter Hills (Asst.), Katharine P. O'Donnell ILLUSTRATIONS STAFF Illustrations Editor: Herbert S. Wilburn, Jr. Art Editor: Andrew Poggenpohl I.st. Illus. Editors: Robert I.. Breeden, W. E. Garrett, Robert E. Gilka. Leonard J. Grant. Mary S. Griswold, Gilbert M. Grosvenor. Gifford D. Hampshire. Kip Ross, Thomas R. Smith; Charles Allmon (Incoming Photo graphs). Pictorial Research: Geraldine I.inder, Caro Stillwell (Librarian) A.rtict & Naturalist: Walter A. Weber Director of Photographs:James M. Godbold Photographers: B. Anthony Stewart (Chief); Bates l.ittlehales, Thomas Nebbia. Kathleen Revis, Joseph Baylor Roberts. Robert F. Sisson, W. D. Vaughn, Volk. mar Wentzel Photo Lab: Edwin I. Wisherd (Chief); Richard H. Stewart (Asst. Chief); John E. Fletcher, Milton Ford. Donald McBain, Guy Starling. Film Editor: Joseph M. Rideiout Engraving & Printing: Dee J. Andella, Joe M. Barlett CARTOGRAPHIC STAFF (hief Cartographer: James M. Darley A1 distant Chief Cartographers: Newman Bumstead, Ralph E. McAleer Cartographers:John J. Brehm, Wellman Chamberlin. Richard Darley, Atlihos D. Grazzini. Apphia Holdstock, Victor J. Kelley, Walter K. Morrison, William T. Peele, Charles L. Stern. CartographicArtists: Irvin E. Alleman, William Palmstrom SECRETARY'S STAFF .Administration: Sheldon Carv, Owen R. Anderson. Thomas I. Hartman, M.D ., Raymond T. McElligott, Jr.. Stan Jennings, Charles F. Althoff. John S. Dameron, Gladys A. Stoneburner. Accounting: F. Charles Brown. C. Vernon Sanders, George F. Fogle, Martha K. Allen. Cashier: Frank S. Delk. Statistics: Everett C. Brown. Coss:: Sargent C. Elliott. Procurement: Charles P. Bixcl (Director); John P. M. Johnston. Payroll: Esther M. L.ohrer. Marie S. Edwards. Alembership Fulfillment: Roy J. Klockenbrink. Accounts Records: Della M. Hurt EUROPEAN OFFICE W. E. Roscher (Director) Hulton House; Fleet Street; London E. C. 4, England ADVERTISING Director: John F. Connery; Regional Offices--Neru York: Harley 1.. McDevitt; Chicago: .eslie R. Gige; San Franicico: Donald F. Mikkelsen; Los Angeles: Jack V. Sheehan ( COVER: Eda Zahl gathers sea urchins off Oahu for scientific study (page 519).