National Geographic : 1941 May
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY GEOGRAPHIC ADMINISTRATION BUILDINGS SIXTEENTH AND MSTREETS NORTHWEST, WASHINGTON, D.C. GILBERT GROSVENOR, President JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Vice-President ROBERT V. FLEMING, Treasurer GEORGE W. HUTCHISON, Secretary HERBERT A. POOLE, Assistant Treasurer THOMAS W. McKNEW, Assistant Secretary LYMAN J. BRIGGS, Chairman; ALEXANDER WETMORE, Vice-Chairman, Committee on Research EXECUTIVE STAFF OF THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE GILBERT GROSVENOR, EDITOR JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Associate Editor J. R. HILDEBRAND Assistant Editor MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Assistant Editor McFALL KERBEY Chief of SchoolService JAMES M. DARLEY Chief Cartographer NEWMAN BUMSTEAD Research Cartographer CHARLES EVANS HUGHES Chief Justice ofthe United States WALTER S. GIFFORD President American Telephone and Telegraph Co. WILLIAM V. PRATT Admiral U. S . Navy, Retired LYMAN J. BRIGGS Director National Bureau of Standards GEORGE R. PUTNAM Commissioner ofLighthouses, Retired THEODORE W. NOYES Editor of The Evening Star GEORGE W. HUTCHISON Secretary National Geographic Society L. O. COLBERT Rear Admiral, Director, U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey FREDERICK SIMPICH Assistant Editor LEO A.BORAH Editorial Staff FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH Editorial Staff WILLIAM H. NICHOLAS Editorial Staff F.BARROWS COLTON Editorial Staff CHARLES MARTIN Chief Photographic Laboratory BOARD OF TRUSTEES ROBERT V. FLEMING President and Chairman ofthe Board, Riggs National Bank LEROY A. LINCOLN President, Metropolitan Life Insurance Company C.HART MERRIAM Member National Academy ofSciences DAVID FAIRCHILD Special Agricultural Explorer, U. S.Department ofAgriculture ALEXANDER WETMORE Assistant Secretary, Smithsonian Institution H. H. ARNOLD Major General, Chief, U. S.Army Air Corps GILBERT GROSVENOR Editor ofNational Geographic Magazine FRANKLIN L.FISHER Chief Illustrations Division MAYNARD OWEN WILLIAMS Chief Foreign Editorial Staff W. ROBERT MOORE Foreign Editorial Staff LEONARD C.ROY Editorial Staff INEZ B.RYAN Research Assistant JOHN J.PERSHING General ofthe Armies ofthe United States CHARLES G. DAWES Formerly Vice-President ofthe United States CHARLES F.KETTERING President, General Motors Research Corporation GEORGE OTIS SMITH Formerly Director U. S.Geological Survey ELISHA HANSON Lawyer and Naturalist JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE Associate Editor ofthe National Geographic Magazine GEORGE SHIRAS, 3D Formerly Member U. S.Con gress, Faunal Naturalist and Wild-Game Photographer ORGANIZED FOR "THE INCREASE AND DIFFUSION OF GEOGRAPHIC KNOWLEDGE" To carry out thepurposes for which itwas founded fifty-three years ago, the National Geographic Society publishes this Magazine monthly. All receipts are in vested in The Magazine itself or expended directly to promote geographicknowledge. Articles and photographs are desired. For material which The Magazine can use, generous remuneration is made. In addition to the editorial and photographic surveys constantly being made, The Society has sponsored more than 100 scientificexpeditions, some of which required years of field work toachieve their objectives. The Society's notable expeditions have pushed back the historic horizons ofthe southwestern United States to a period nearlyeight centuries before Columbus crossed the Atlantic. By dating the ruins ofthe vast communal dwellingsinthat region, The Society's re searches have solved secrets that have puzzled historians for three hundred years. In Mexico, The Society and the Smithsonian Institu tion, January 16, 1939, discovered the oldest work of man in the Americas forwhich we have adate. This slab of stone is engraved inMayan characters with adate which means November 4,291 B.C.Itantedates by 200 years anything heretoforedated inAmerica, and reveals agreat center of early American culture, previously unknown. On November 11,1935, inaflight sponsored jointly by the National Geographic Society and the U. S.Army Air Corps, the world's largest balloon, Explorer II,as cended to the world altitude record of72,395 feet. Capt. Albert W. Stevens and Capt. Orvil A.Anderson took aloft inthe gondola nearly aton of scientific instru ments, and obtained results of extraordinary value. The National Geographic Society-U. S.Navy Expe dition camped on desert Canton Island inmid-Pacific and successfully photographed and observed the solar eclipse of 1937. The Society has taken part inmany projects toincrease knowledge ofthe sun. The Society cooperated with Dr. William Beebe indeep-sea explorations off Bermuda, during which aworld record depth of3,028 feet was attained. The Society granted $25,000, and inaddition $75,000 was given by individual members, to the Government when the congressional appropriation for the purpose was insufficient, and the finest ofthe giant sequoia trees inthe Giant Forest ofSequoia National Park ofCalifornia were thereby saved for the American people. The world's largest ice field and glacial system outside the Polar regions was discovered inAlaska by Bradford Washburn while making explorations for The Society and the Harvard Institute ofExploration, 1937-8. Copyriht 1941. by National Geographic Society Washington D.C.International Copyright secured. All rights reserved. Quedan reervados todos los derechos. orein U. S.A. Entered atthe Post Office atWashington D.C.asSecond-Class Mail Matter Acceptance for maiing at special rate ofpostage provided for in Sec. 1103, Act of October 8,1917. authorized July 1,1918. Cover design and names registered inUnited States Patent Oflice. Marca liegistrada.