National Geographic : 1941 Jun
The Columbia Turns on the Power Photograph by Pholo-Art Between Two Playgrounds-Mountain and Beach-Is Portland, "City of Roses" Fifty miles to the east rises Mount Hood (page 750). Sixty miles to the west are sandy beaches facing the Pacific. Great fresh-water port, important industrial city, Portland is widely known for its Rose Festival followed by a ski tournament, its summer symphony concerts in the stadium, and its livestock exposition. Home sites on the many hills overlooking the business center are called "view properties" (page 792). In 1849 gold dust and "beaver money" eclipsed that historic coin. Portland let miners stake their claims, while merchants, selling flour at $8 a buckskin sack, apples at $125 a bushel, and eggs at $1 each, claimed their stakes. It was hard to keep up with the Columbia, even in those days. Bruno Heceta, a Spaniard, anchored off the river mouth in 1775. Captain Cook turned aside the next year, for sea-otter skins brought back by Bering's starving cast aways had whetted the Chinese passion for fine furs. In 1792, twenty-five years before William Cullen Bryant published the poetic phrase "where rolls the Oregon," Captain Robert Gray of Boston, Massachusetts, had entered the Oregon and named it after his own good ship, the Columbia Rediviva-Columbia the Rebuilt. This was the same ship which, two years be fore, had completed a voyage which carried the American flag around the world for the first time. At that time our Capital was "the city of Washington in the Territory of Columbia," and Columbia, honoring Columbus, was the poetic name of our land. "View Properties" on Portland Hills Had the Columbia been a muddy river, it might have been discovered by Russia, Spain, or England during the search for a Northwest Passage (pages 788 and opposite).