National Geographic : 1942 Sep
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY GEOGRAPHIC ADMINISTRATION BUILDINGS SIXTEENTH AND M STREETS NORTHWEST, WASHINGTON, D. C. GILBERT GROSVENOR, President JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Vice-President ROBERT V. FLEMING, Treasurer GEORGE W. HUTCHINSON, Secretary HERBERT A. POOLE, Assistant Treasurer THOMAS W. McKNEW, Assistant Secretary LYMAN J. BRIGGS, Chairman; ALEXANDER WETMORE, Vice-Chairmian, Committee on Research EXECUTIVE STAFF OF THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE GILBERT GROSVENOR, EDITOR J. R . HILDEBRAND Assistant Editor MELVILLE BELL GROSV Assistant Editor McFALL KERBEY Chief of School Service JAMES M. DARLEY Chief Cartographer NEWMAN BUMSTEAD Research Cartographer CHARLES MARTIN Color Photographic Techni WALTER M. EDWARDS Illustrations Division CHARLES EVANS HUGH Formerly Chief Justice of t United States WALTER S. GIFFORD President American Teleph Telegraph Co. WILLIAM V. PRATT Admiral U. S. Navy, Retir LYMAN J. BRIGGS Director National Bureau Standards GEORGE R. PUTNAM Commissioner of Lighthou Retired THEODORE W. NOVES Editor of TheI Evening Sta L. O. COLBERT Rear Admiral, Director U.S and Geodetic Survey GEORGE W. HUTCHISOI Secretary National Geogra Society JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Associate Editor FREDERICK SIMPICH ENOR Assistant Editor M ENOR MAY: LEO A. BORAH C Editorial Staff FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH Editorial Staff WILLIAM H. NICHOLAS Editorial Staff cian F. BARROWS COLTON Chie Editorial Staff BOARD OF TRUSTEES ES ROBERT V. FLEMING he President and Chairman of the Board, Riggs National Bank H. H . ARNOLD C one and Lieutenant General, U. S. A., Com manding U. S. Army Air Forces LEROY A. LINCOLN ed President Metropolitan Life Insurance Company EMORY S. LAND of Rear Admiral U. S. Navy, Retired; Chairman U. S. Maritime Commission DAVID FAIRCHILD ses, Special Agricultural Explorer, U. S. Department of Agriculture ALEXANDER WETMORE r Assistant Secretary, Smithsonian Potom Institution S. Coast JUAN T. TRIPPE President Pan American Airways N GILBERT GROSVENOR J phic Editor of National Geographic Associ Magazine FRANKLIN L. FISHER Chief Illustrations Division NARD OWEN WILLIAMS chief Foreign Editorial Staff W. ROBERT MOORE Foreign Editorial Staff LEONARD C. ROY Editorial Staff INEZ B. RYAN Research Assistant EDWIN L. WISHERD f Photographic Laboratory GERARD F. HUBBARD Illustrations Division JOHN J. PERSHING General of the Armies of the United States HARLES F. KETTERING President General Motors Research Corporation CHARLES G. DAWES Formerly Vice-President of the United States GEORGE OTIS SMITH Formerly Director U. S. Geological Survey ELISHA HANSON Lawyer and Naturalist LLOYD B. WILSON President Chesapeake and ac Telephone Companies ERNEST E. NORRIS President Southern Railway System OHN OLIVER LA GORCE ate Editor of the National Geographic Magazine ORGANIZED FOR "THE INCREASE AND DIFFUSION OF GEOGRAPHIC KNOWLEDGE" To carry out the purposes for which it was founded On November 11, 1935, in a flight sponsored jointly fifty-four years ago, the National Geographic Society by the National Geographic Society and the U. S. Army publishes this Magazine monthly. All receipts are in- Air Corps, the world's largest balloon, Explorer II, as vested in The Magazine itself or expended directly to cended to the world altitude record of 72,395 feet. promote geographic knowledge. Capt. Albert W. Stevens and Capt. Orvil A. Anderson Articles and photographs are desired. For material took aloft in the gondola nearly a ton of scientific instru The Magazine uses, generous remuneration is made. inents, and obtained results of extraordinary value. In addition to the editorial and photographic surveys The National Geographic Society-U . S. Navy Expe constantly being made, The Society has sponsored more dition camped on desert Canton Island in mid-Pacific and than 100 scientific expeditions, some of which required successfully photographed and observed the solar eclipse years of field work to achieve their objectives, of 1937. The Society has taken part in many projects The Society's notable expeditions have pushed back to increase knowledge of the sun. the historic horizons of the southwestern United States The Society cooperated with Dr. William Beebe in to a period nearly eight centuries before Columbus deep-sea explorations off Bermuda, during which a world crossed the Atlantic. By dating the ruins of the vast record depth of 3,028 feet was attained. communal dwellings in that region, The Society's re- S yga ad in adio searches solved secrets that had puzzled historians for The Society granted $25,000, and in addition $75,000 three hundred years, was given by individual members, to the Government when the congressional appropriation for the purpose In Mexico, The Society and the Smithsonian Institu- was insufficient, and the finest of the giant sequoia trees tion, January 16, 1939, discovered the oldest work of man in the Giant Forest of Sequoia National Park of California in the Americas for which we have a date. This slab of were thereby saved for the American people. stone is engraved in Mayan characters with a date which means November 4, 201 B. c. (Spinden Correlation). It One of the world's largest icefields and glacial systems antedates by 200 years anything heretofore dated in outside the polar regions was discovered in Alaska and America, and reveals a great center of early American Yukon by Bradford Washburn while exploring for The culture, previously unknown. Society and the Harvard Institute of Exploration, 1938. Copyright, 1942, by National Geographic Society, Washington. D. C. International Copyright secured. All rights reserved. Quedan reservados todos los derechos. Printed in . S.A. Entered at the Post Office at Washington, D. C., as Second-Class Mail Matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in See. 1103, Act of October :, 1917. authorized July 1, 1918. (over design and names registered in ignited States Patent ()ffice. Marca Registrtada.