National Geographic : 1942 Nov
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY GEOGRAPHIC ADMINISTRATION BUILDINGS SIXTEENTH AND M STREETS NORTHWEST, WASHINGTON, D. C . GILBERT GROSVENOR, President JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Vice-President ROBERT V. FLEMING, Treasurer GEORGE \. HUTCHISON, Secretary HERBERT A. POOLE, Assistant Treasurer THOMAS \. McKNEW, Assistant Secretary LYMAN J. BRIGGS, Chairman; ALEXANDER WETMORE, Vice-Chairman, Committee on Research EXECUTIVE STAFF OF THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE GILBERT GROSVENOR, EDITOR J. R . HILDEBRAND Assistant Editor MELVILLE BELL GROSV Assistant Editor McFALL KERBEY Chief of School Service JAMES M. DARLEY Chief Cartographer NEWMAN BUMSTEAD Research Cartographer CHARLES MARTIN Color Photographic Techni WALTER M. EDWARDS Illustrations Division CHARLES EVANS HUGHES Formerly Chief Justice of the United States WALTER S. GIFFORD President American Telephone and Telegraph Co. WILLIAM V. PRATT Admiral U. S. Navy, Retired LYMAN J. BRIGGS Director National Bureau of Standards GEORGE R. PUTNAM Commissioner of Lighthouses, Retired THEODORE W. NOYES Editor of The Evening Star L. O. COLBERT Rear Admiral, Director U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey GEORGE \. HUTCHISON Secretary National Geographic Society JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Associate Editor FREDERICK SIMPICH ENOR Assistant Editor M ENOR MAY LEO A. BORAH C Editorial Staff FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH Editorial Staff WILLIAM H. NICHOLAS Editorial Staff cian F. BARROWS COLTON Chi Editorial Staff BOARD OF TRUSTEES ROBERT V. FLEMING President and Chairman of the Board, Riggs National Bank H. H. ARNOLD Lieutenant General, U. S. A., Com manding U. S. Army Air Forces LEROY A. LINCOLN President Metropolitan Life Insurance Company EMORY S. LAND Rear Admiral U. S. Navy, Retired; Chairman U. S. Maritime Commission DAVID FAIRCHILD Special Agricultural Explorer, U. S . Department of Agriculture ALEXANDER WETMORE Assistant Secretary, Smithsonian Institution JUAN T. TRIPPE President Pan American Airways GILBERT GROSVENOR Editor of National Geographic Magazine FRANKLIN L. FISHER Chief Illustrations Division NARD OWEN WILLIAMS Ilief Foreign Editorial Staff W. ROBERT MOORE Foreign Editorial Staff LEONARD C. ROY Editorial Staff INEZ B. RYAN Research Assistant EDWIN L. WISHERD ef Photographic Laboratory GERARD F. HUBBARD Illustrations Division JOHN J. PERSHING General of the Armies of the United States CHARLES F. KETTERING President General Motors Research Corporation CHARLES G. DAWES Formerly Vice-President of the United States GEORGE OTIS SMITH Formerly Director U. S . Geological Survey ELISHA HANSON Lawyer and Naturalist LLOYD B. WILSON President Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Companies ERNEST E. NORRIS President Southern Railway System JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE Associate Editor of the National Geographic Magazine ORGANIZED FOR "THE INCREASE AND DIFFUSION OF GEOGRAPHIC KNOWLEDGE" To carry out the purposes for which it was founded fifty-four years ago, the National Geographic Society publishes this Magazine monthly. All receipts are in vested in The Magazine itself or expended directly to promote geographic knowledge. Articles and photographs are desired. For material The Magazine uses, generous remuneration is made. In addition to the editorial and photographic surveys constantly being made, The Society has sponsored more than 100 scientific expeditions, some of which required years of field work to achieve their objectives. The Society's notable expeditions have pushed back the historic horizons of the southwestern United States to a period nearly eight centuries before Columbus crossed the Atlantic. By dating the ruins of the vast communal dwellings in that region, The Society's re searches solved secrets that had puzzled historians for three hundred years. In Mexico, The Society and the Smithsonian Institu tion, January 16, 1939, discovered the oldest work of man in the Americas for which we have a date. This slab of stone is engraved in Mayan characters with a date which means November 4, 291 B. C. (Spinden Correlation). It antedates by 200 years anything heretofore dated in America, and reveals a great center of early American culture, previously unknown. On November 11, 1935, in a flight sponsored jointly by the National Geographic Society and the U. S. Army Air Corps, the world's largest balloon, Explorer II, as cended to the world altitude record of 72,395 feet. Capt. Albert W. Stevens and Capt. Orvil A. Anderson took aloft in the gondola nearly a ton of scientific instru ments, and obtained results of extraordinary value. The National Geographic Society-U . S. Navy Expe dition camped on desert Canton Island in mid-Pacific and successfully photographed and observed the solar eclipse of 1937. The Society has taken part in many projects to increase knowledge of the sun. The Society cooperated with Dr. William Beebe in deep-sea explorations off Bermuda, during which a world record depth of 3,028 feet was attained. The Society granted $25,000, and in addition $75,000 was given by individual members, to the Government when the congressional appropriation for the purpose was insufficient, and the finest of the giant sequoia trees in the Giant Forest of Sequoia National Park of California were thereby saved for the American people. One of the world's largest icefields and glacial systems outside the polar regions was discovered in Alaska and Yukon by Bradford Washburn while exploring for The Society and the Harvard Institute of Exploration, 1938. Copyright, 1942, by National Geographic Society, Washington, D. C. International Copyright secured. All rights reserved. Quedan reservados todos los derechos. Printed in U. S. A. Entered at the Post Office at Washington, D. C., as Second-Class Mail Matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of posta:e provided for in Sec. 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, authorized July 1, 1918. Cover design and names registered in United States Patent Office. Marca Reegistrada.