National Geographic : 1943 Mar
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY GEOGRAPHIC ADMINISTRATION BUILDINGS SIXTEENTH AND M STREETS NORTHWEST, WASHINGTON, D. C . GILBERT GROSVENOR, President JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Vice-President ROBERT V. FLEMING, Treasurer GEORGE W. HUTCHISON, Secretary HERBERT A. POOLE, Assistant Treasurer THOMAS W. McKNEW, Assistant Secretary LYMAN J. BRIGGS, Chairman; ALEXANDER WETMORE, Vice-Chairman, Committee on Research EXECUTIVE STAFF OF THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE GILBERT GROSVENOR, EDITOR J. R. HILDEBRAND Assistant Editor MELVILLE BELL GROSV Assistant Editor McFALL KERBEY Chief of School Service JAMES M. DARLEY Chief Cartographer NEWMAN BUMSTEAD Research Cartographer CHARLES E. RIDDIFORI Cartographic Staff WELLMAN CHAMBERLI Cartographic Staff CHARLES EVANS HUGH Formerly Chief Justice of i United States WALTER S. GIFFORD President American Teleph Telegraph Co. WILLIAM V. PRATT Admiral U. S. Navy, Retir LYMAN J. BRIGGS Director National Bureau Standards GEORGE R. PUTNAM Commissioner of Lighthous Retired THEODORE W. NOYES Editor of The Evening Sta L. O. COLBERT Rear Admiral, Director U. and Geodetic Survey GEORGE W. HUTCHISOI Secretary National Geogra Society JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Associate Editor FREDERICK SIMPICH ENOR Assistant Editor M 'ENOR MAY" LEO A. BORAH Cl Editorial Staff LEONARD C. ROY Editorial Staff WILLIAM H. NICHOLAS Chi Editorial Staff F. BARROWS COLTON N Editorial Staff BOARD OF TRUSTEES ES ROBERT V. FLEMING the President and Chairman of the Board, Riggs National Bank H. H . ARNOLD C lone and Lieutenant General, U. S. A ., Com manding U. S. Army Air Forces LEROY A. LINCOLN ed President Metropolitan Life Insurance Company of EMORY S. LAND Rear Admiral U. S. Navy, Retired; Chairman U. S. Maritime Commission DAVID FAIRCHILD ses, Special Agricultural Explorer, U. S. Department of Agriculture ALEXANDER WETMORE r Assistant Secretary, Smithsonian Potom Institution S. Coast JUAN T. TRIPPE President Pan American Airways N GILBERT GROSVENOR J phic Editor of National Geographic Associ Magazine FRANKLIN L. FISHER Chief Illustrations Division NARD OWEN WILLIAMS lief Foreign Editorial Staff W. ROBERT MOORE Foreign Editorial Staff INEZ B. RYAN Research Assistant EDWIN L. WISHERD f Photographic Laboratory GERARD F. HUBBARD Illustrations Division WALTER M. EDWARDS Illustrations Division JOHN J. PERSHING General of the Armies of the United States HARLES F. KETTERING President General Motors Research Corporation CHARLES G. DAWES Formerly Vice-President of the United States GEORGE OTIS SMITH Formerly Director U. S. Geological Survey ELISHA HANSON Lawyer and Naturalist LLOYD B. WILSON President Chesapeake and ac Telephone Companies ERNEST E. NORRIS President Southern Railway System OHN OLIVER LA GORCE ate Editor of the National Geographic Magazine ORGANIZED FOR "THE INCREASE AND DIFFUSION OF GEOGRAPHIC KNOWLEDGE" To carry out the purposes for which it was founded fifty-five years ago, the National Geographic Society publishes this Magazine monthly. All receipts are in vested in The Magazine itself or expended directly to promote geographic knowledge. Articles and photographs are desired. For material The Magazine uses, generous remuneration is made. In addition to the editorial and photographic surveys constantly being made, The Society has sponsored more than 100 scientific expeditions, some of which required years of field work to achieve their objectives. The Society's notable expeditions have pushed back the historic horizons of the southwestern United States to a period nearly eight centuries before Columbus crossed the Atlantic. By dating the ruins of the vast communal dwellings in that region, The Society's re searches solved secrets that had puzzled historians for three hundred years. In Mexico, The Society and the Smithsonian Institu tion, January 16, 1939, discovered the oldest work of man in the Americas for which we have a date. This slab of stone is engraved in Mayan characters with a date which means November 4, 291 B. c. (Spinden Correlation). It antedates by 200 years anything heretofore dated in America, and reveals a great center of early American culture, previously unknown. On November 11, 1935, in a flight sponsored jointly by the National Geographic Society and the U. S. Army Air Corps, the world's largest balloon, Explorer II, as cended to the world altitude record of 72,395 feet. Capt. Albert W. Stevens and Capt. Orvil A. Anderson took aloft in the gondola nearly a ton of scientific instru ments, and obtained results of extraordinary value. The National Geographic Society-U . S. Navy Expe dition camped on desert Canton Island in mid-Pacific and successfully photographed and observed the solar eclipse of 1937. The Society has taken part in many projects to increase knowledge of the sun. The Society cooperated with Dr. William Beebe in deep-sea explorations off Bermuda, during which a world record depth of 3,028 feet was attained. The Society granted $25,000, and in addition $75,000 was given by individual members, to the Government when the congressional appropriation for the purpose was insufficient, and the finest of the giant sequoia trees in the Giant Forest of Sequoia National Park of California were thereby saved for the American people. One of the world's largest icefields and glacial systems outside the polar regions was discovered in Alaska and Yukon by Bradford Washburn while exploring for The Society and the Harvard Institute of Exploration, 1938. Copyright, 1943, by National Geographic Society, Washington. D, C. International Copyright secured. All rights reserved. Quedan reservados todos los derechos. Printed in U. S. A. Entered at the Post Office at Washington, D. C. as Second-Class Mail Matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Sec. 1103, Act of October 3, 1917. authorized July 1, 1918. Cover design and names registered in United States Patent Office. Marca Registrada.