National Geographic : 1943 Jun
New Map of Europe and the Near East T IMELY addition to the National Geo graphic Society's series of supplement maps is the new revised Map of Europe and the Near East, distributed with this issue of the NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE. The comprehensive chart, printed in 10 colors on a sheet 39 by 34 inches, goes to The Society's 1,250,000 members while the United Nations are poised for an invasion of Europe. Whether Norway, the Low Countries, Spain, France, Italy, or Greece and the Balkan States become battlegrounds, the course of invasion can be followed on the new chart, which is scaled at 94.7 miles to an inch. The map reaches from the Persian Gulf, with its ports for Lend-Lease supplies to Soviet Russia, to American-occupied Iceland, and from sunny Casablanca, Morocco, to bleak Archangel and the Urals. It reveals that continental Europe has be come a Nazi fortress. Four nations remain neutral-Spain and Portugal, on the Iberian Peninsula, landlocked Switzerland, and Swe den. Only other continental territory free from Nazi domination is eastern Thrace, a patch of European Turkey. On the map 225 new place names are listed. In North Africa scores of obscure names where American and British troops have made history are now familiar-Faid, Maknassy, Kasserine, Pichon, and other scenes of bitter fighting. They appear along with more familiar cities: Algiers, Tunis, and Bizerte. New place names of importance in Norway include the big Nazi submarine base of Sorskjomen and the air base of Vaggetem jaure. Soviet Russia's place names have been com pletely revised. When the war ends, where will the Nazi "unconditional surrender" be accepted? The map is dotted with many places, some obscure for centuries, which attained fame with the signing of a treaty. Such are Aix-la Chapelle (Aachen), Brest Litovsk, Ghent, Locarno, Pressburg, Rapallo, Utrecht, Ver sailles, Vienna, Zirich. The map shows that the only oil pipe lines in Axis territory are in Romania and Albania. Members may follow intensified United Nations' bombing raids. Along with famous targets such as Cologne (Koln), Essen, Ham burg, Berlin, and Bremen are shown hundreds of smaller European industrial communities which are important military objectives. Across the English Channel, in Britain, lie the cities and towns for which famous R.A.F. bombers are named-Manchester, Lancaster, Bristol, and Hereford. The map is drawn on an azimuthal equidis tant projection, centered on 50° north latitude and 22° 30' east longitude. Therefore it is adapted for measuring distances by the scale shown on the map. For example, the scale shows the distance from Lisbon to Basra, on the Persian Gulf, as about 3,258 miles. The computed distance is 3,235 miles-a dif ference of only 23 miles over this vast stretch. In the upper right-hand corner of the map is a large inset of the Middle East, on a scale of 252.5 miles to an inch. It reaches from Aden to Baku and from Port Said to Karachi, Quetta, and Stalinabad. Within this area Somalis, Indians, Persians, Afghans, British, Russians, and Americans work side by side handling enormous shipments of war materials for United Nations' armies. The map also carries a table of ship-route distances in nautical miles, between principal European ports and other big world ports. Careful selection of lettering style for place names and their arrangement keep the map clear and concise despite the vast amount of information it contains. GEOGRAPHIC Maps Abreast of History GEOGRAPHIC 10-color wall-map supplements have kept abreast of the changing fortunes of European nations since before World War I. In 1913 the Editor of the NATIONAL GEO GRAPHIC MAGAZINE was traveling in Europe. He concluded that war on the Continent was inevitable within a year. On his return to Washington, D. C., he directed preparation of a map supplement of the New Balkan States and Central Europe. When it was printed early in 1914, the entire press run was stored away. Upon the outbreak of World War I, August 1, 1914, members of The Society received this new map of Europe with the August, 1914, issue of their NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC. When Hitler seized Austria in March, 1938, a map of Europe and the Near East, showing Austria as part of the German Reich, was is sued. A few days after the invasion of Poland, in September, 1939, members received a map of Central Europe and the Mediterranean. This was followed, in March, 1940, by a Map of Classical Lands of the Mediterranean, replete with historical data and valuable in * Members may obtain additional copies of the new Map of Europe and the Near East by writing the National Geographic Society, Washington, I). C. Prices, in United States and Possessions, 50< on paper (folded or rolled); $1 on linen (rolled only); Index, 25"'. Outside of United States and Posses sions, 755 on paper; $1.25 on linen; Index. 50(. All remittances payable in U. S. funds. Postage prepaid.