National Geographic : 1943 Nov
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY GEOGRAPHIC ADMINISTRATION BUILDINGS SIXTEENTH AND MSTREETS NORTHWEST, WASHINGTON 6,D.C. GILBERT GROSVENOR, President JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Vice-President ROBERT V. FLEMING, Treasurer GEORGE W. HUTCHISON, Secretary HERBERT A. POOLE, Assistant Treasurer THOMAS W. McKNEW, Assistant Secretary LYMAN J. BRIGGS, Chairman; ALEXANDER WETMORE, Vice-Chairman, Committee on Research EXECUTIVE STAFF OF THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE GILBERT GROSVENOR, EDITOR J. R. HILDEBRAND Assistant Editor MELVILLE BELL GROSV Assistant Editor McFALL KERBEY Chief of School Service JAMES M. DARLEY Chief Cartographer NEWMAN BUMSTEAD Research Cartographer CHARLES E. RIDDIFORI Cartographic Staff WELLMAN CHAMBERLI Cartographic Staff CHARLES EVANS HUGH Formerly ChiefJustice of United States WALTER S. GIFFORD President American Teleph Telegraph Co. WILLIAM V. PRATT Admiral U. S . Navy, Reti LYMAN J. BRIGGS Director National Bureau Standards GEORGE R. PUTNAM Commissioner ofLighthou Retired THEODORE W.NOYES Editor of The Evening Sta L. O. COLBERT Rear Admiral, Director U. and GeodeticSurvey GEORGE W. HUTCHISO Secretary National Geogra Society JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Associate Editor FREDERICK SIMPICH ENOR Assistant Editor MENOR MAY: LEO A. BORAH C1 Editorial Staff LEONARD C.ROY Editorial Staff WILLIAM H. NICHOLAS Chief Editorial Staff DF.BARROWS COLTON NEditorial Staff BOARD OF TRUSTEES ES ROBERT V. FLEMING the President and Chairman oftlhe Board, Riggs National Bank H. H. ARNOLD Clone and General, U. S.A., Commanding U.S.Army Air Forces LEROY A.LINCOLN red President Metropolitan Life Insurance Company EMORY S.LAND Rear Admiral U. S.Navy, Retired; Chairman U. S.Maritime Commission DAVID FAIRCHILD ses, Special Agricultural Explorer, U. S.Department ofAgriculture ALEXANDER VETMORE IrAssistant Secretary, Smithsonian Potom Institution S.Coast JUAN T. TRIPPE President Pan American Airways NGILBERT GROSVENOR Jiphic Editor ofNational Geographic Assoc' Magazine FRANKLIN L.FISHER Chief Illustrations Division NARD OWEN WILLIAMS chief Foreign Editorial Staff W. ROBERT MOORE Foreign Editorial Staff INEZ B.RYAN Research Assistant EDWIN L.WISHERD fPhotographic Laboratory GERARD F.HUBBARD Illustrations Division WALTER M. EDWARDS Illustrations Division JOHN J.PERSHING General ofthe Armies ofthe United States HARLES F.KETTERING President General Motors Research Corporation CHARLES G. DAWES Formerly Vice-President ofthe United States GEORGE OTIS SMITH Formerly Director U. S.Geological Survey ELISHA HANSON Lawyer and Naturalist LLOYD B.WILSON President Chesapeake and acTelephone Companies ERNEST E.NORRIS President Southern Railway System OHN OLIVER LA GORCE iate Editor ofthe National Geographic Magazine ORGANIZED FOR "THE INCREASE AND DIFFUSION OF GEOGRAPHIC KNOWLEDGE" To carry out the purposes for which itwas founded On November 11,1935, inaflight sponsored jointly fifty-five years ago, the National Geographic Society by the National Geographic Society and the U.S.Army publishes this Magazine monthly. All receipts are in- Air Corps, the world's largest balloon, Explorer II,as vested in The Magazine itself or expended directly to cended to the world altitude record of72,395 feet. promote geographic knowledge. Capt. Albert W. Stevens and Capt. Orvil A.Anderson Articles and photographs are desired. For material took aloft inthe gondola nearly aton of scientific instru The Magazine uses, generous remuneration ismade. ments, and obtained results of extraordinary value. In addition to the editorial and photographic surveys The National Geographic Society-U. S.Navy Expe constantly being made, The Society has sponsored more dition camped on desert Canton Island inmid-Pacific and than 100 scientificexpeditions, some of which required successfully photographed and observed the solar eclipse years of field workto achieve their objectives, of1937. The Society has taken part inmany projects The Society's notable expeditions have pushed back toincrease knowledge ofthe sun. the historic horizons ofthe southwestern United States The Society cooperated with Dr. William Beebe in to a period nearly eight centuries before Columbus deep-sea explorations off Bermuda, during which aworld crossed the Atlantic. By dating the ruins ofthe vast record depth of3,028 feet was attained. communal dwellings inthat region, The Society's re searches solved secrets that had puzzled historians for The Society granted $25,000, and inaddition $75,000 three hundred years. was given by individual members, to the Government when the congressional appropriation for the purpose In Mexico, TheSociety and the Smithsonian Institu- was insufficient, and the finest ofthe giant sequoia trees tion, January 16, 1939, discovered the oldest work of man inthe Giant Forest ofSequoia National Park ofCalifornia in the Americas for which we have adate. This slab of were thereby saved for the American people. stone is engraved inMayan characters with adate which means November4,291 B.c.(Spinden Correlation). ItOne ofthe world's largest icefields and glacial systems antedates by 200years anything heretofore dated inoutside the polar regions was discovered inAlaska and America, and reveals agreat center of early American Yukon by Bradford Washburn while exploring for The culture, previouslyunknown. Society and the Harvard Institute ofExploration, 1938. Copyright, 1943, by NationalGeographic Society, Washington, D,C.International Copyright secured. All rights reserved. Quedan reservados todos los derechos. Printed in U. A. Entered at the Post Office at Washington, D.C., asSecond-Class Mail Matter. Acceptance for mailing at secial rate ofpostage provided for in Sec. 1103. Act ofOctober 3,1917, authorized July 1,1918. Cover design and names registered inUnited States Patent Office. Marca Registrada.