National Geographic : 1944 Jun
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY GEOGRAPHIC ADMINISTRATION BUILDINGS SIXTEENTH AND MSTREETS NORTHWEST, WASHINGTON 6,D.C. GILBERT GROSVENOR, President JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Vice-President ROBERT V. FLEMING, Treasurer GEORGE W. HUTCHISON, Secretary HERBERT A. POOLE, Assistant Treasurer THOMAS W. McKNEW, Assistant Secretary LYMAN J. BRIGGS, Chairman; ALEXANDER WETMORE, Vice-Chairman, Committee on Research EXECUTIVE STAFF OF THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE GILBERT GROSVENOR, EDITOR J. R. HILDEBRAND Assistant Editor MELVILLE BELL GROSV Assistant Editor JAMES M. DARLEY Chief Cartographer NEWMAN BUMSTEAD Research Cartographer CHARLES E. RIDDIFOR Cartographic Staff WELLMAN CHAMBERLI Cartographic Staff CHARLES EVANS HUGHES Formerly ChiefJustice ofthe United States WALTER S. GIFFORD President American Telephone and Telegraph Co. WILLIAM V. PRATT Admiral U. S . Navy, Retired LYMAN J. BRIGGS Director National Bureau of Standards GEORGE R. PUTNAM Commissioner ofLighthouses, Retired THEODORE W.NOYES Editor of The Evening Star L. O. COLBERT Rear Admiral, Director U. S.Coast and GeodeticSurvey GEORGE W. HUTCHISON Secretary National Geographic Society JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Associate Editor FREDERICK SIMPICH Assistant Editor VENOR McFALL KERBEY MAY Chief of School Service CLEO A. BORAH Editorial Staff LEONARD C.ROY Editorial Staff WILLIAM H. NICHOLAS DEditorial Staff Chi F.BARROWS COLTON IN Editorial Staff WALT] BOARD OF TRUSTEES ROBERT V. FLEMING President and Chairman ofthe Board, Riggs National Bank H. H.ARNOLD General, U. S.A., Commanding U. S.Army Air Forces LEROY A. LINCOLN President Metropolitan Life Insurance Company EMORY S.LAND Rear Admiral U. S.Navy, Retired; Chairman U. S.Maritime Commission DAVID FAIRCHILD Special Agricultural Explorer, U. S.Department ofAgriculture ALEXANDER WETMORE Assistant Secretary, Smithsonian Institution GILBERT GROSVENOR Editor ofNational Geographic Magazine FRANKLIN L.FISHER Chief Illustrations Division NARD OWEN WILLIAMS hief Foreign Editorial Staff W. ROBERT MOORE Foreign Editorial Staff INEZ B.RYAN Research Assistant EDWIN L.WISHERD fPhotographic Laboratory ER MEAYERS EDWARDS Illustrations Division JOHN J.PERSHING General ofthe Armies ofthe United States CHARLES F.KETTERING President General Motors Research Corporation CHARLES G.DAWES Formerly Vice-President ofthe United States JUAN T.TRIPPE President Pan American Airways ELISHA HANSON Lawyer and Naturalist LLOYD B.WILSON President Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Companies ERNEST E.NORRIS President Southern Railway System JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE Associate Editor ofthe National Geographic Magazine ORGANIZED FOR "THE INCREASE AND DIFFUSION OF GEOGRAPHIC KNOWLEDGE" To carry out the purposes for which itwas founded On November 11,1935, inaflight sponsored jointly fifty-six years ago, the National Geographic Society by the National Geographic Society and the U. S.Army publishes this Magazine monthly. All receipts are in- Air Corps, the world's largest balloon, Explorer II,as vested in The Magazine itself or expended directly to cended to the world altitude record of72,395 feet. promote geographic knowledge. Capt. Albert W. Stevens and Capt. Orvil A. Anderson Articles and photographs aredesired. For material took aloft inthe gondola nearly aton ofscientific instru The Magazine uses, generous remuneration ismade. ments, and obtained results of extraordinary value. In addition tothe editorial and photographic surveys The National Geographic Society-U. S.Navy Expe constantly being made, The Society has sponsored more dition camped on desert Canton Island inmid-Pacific and than 100 scientificexpeditions, some of which required successfully photographed and observed the solar eclipse years of field work to achieve their objectives, of1937. The Society has taken part inmany projects The Society's notable expeditions have pushed back toincrease knowledge ofthe sun. the historic horizons ofthe southwestern United States The Society cooperated with Dr. William Beebe in to a period nearly eight centuries before Columbus deep-sea explorations off Bermuda, during which aworld crossed the Atlantic. By dating the ruins ofthe vast record depth of3,028 feet was attained. communal dwellings inthat region, The Society's re searches solved secrets that had puzzled historians for The Society granted $25,000, and inaddition $75,000 three hundred years. was given by individual members, to the Government tree unre year. when the congressional appropriation for the purpose In Mexico, TheSociety and the Smithsonian Institu- was insufficient, and the finest ofthe giant sequoia trees tion, January 16,1939, discovered the oldest work of man inthe Giant Forest ofSequoia National Park ofCalifornia in the Americas for which we have adate. This slab ofwere thereby saved for the American people. stone is engravedinMayan characters with adate which means November4,291 B.c.(Spinden Correlation). ItOne ofthe world's largest icefields and glacial systems antedates by 200years anything heretofore dated inoutside the polar regions was discovered inAlaska and America, and reveals agreat center ofearly American Yukon by Bradford Washburn while exploring for The culture, previouslyunknown. Society and the Harvard Institute ofExploration, 1938. Copyright, 1944, by NationalGeographic Society, Washington, D.C.International Copyright secured. All rights reserved. Quedan reservados todos los derechos. Printed in U. S. A. Entered at the Post Office atWashington, D.C., as Second-Class Mail Matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate ofpostage provided for in Sec. 1103, Act ofOctober 3,1917, authorized July 1,1918. Cover design and names registered inUnited States Patent Office. Marca Registrada.