National Geographic : 1944 Aug
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY GEOGRAPHIC ADMINISTRATION BUILDINGS SIXTEENTH AND MSTREETS NORTHWEST, WASHINGTON 6,D.C. GILBERT GROSVENOR, President JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Vice-President ROBERT V. FLEMING, Treasurer GEORGE W. HUTCHISON, Secretary HERBERT A. POOLE, Assistant Treasurer THOMAS W. McKNEW, Assistant Secretary LYMAN J. BRIGGS, Chairman; ALEXANDER WETMORE, Vice-Chairman, Committee on Research EXECUTIVE STAFF OF THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE GILBERT GROSVENOR, EDITOR JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Associate Editor J. R. HILDEBRAND Assistant Editor MELVILLE BELLGROSVENOR Assistant Editor JAMES M. DARLEY Chief Cartographer NEWMAN BUMSTEAD Research Cartographer CHARLES E. RIDDIFORD Cartographic Staff WELLMAN CHAMBERLIN Cartographic Staff CHARLES EVANSHUGHES Formerly Chief Justice ofthe United States WALTER S. GIFFORD President AmericanTelephone and Telegraph Co. WILLIAM V. PRATT Admiral U. S. Navy, Retired LYMAN J. BRIGGS Director NationalBureau of Standards GEORGE R. PUTNAM Commissioner of Lighthouses, Retired THEODORE W. NOYES Editor of The Evening Star L. O. COLBERT Rear Admiral, Director U. S.Coast and Geodetic Survey GEORGE W. HUTCHISON Secretary NationalGeographic Society FREDERICK SIMPICH Assistant Editor McFALL KERBEY Chief ofSchool Service LEO A. BORAH Editorial Staff LEONARD C.ROY Editorial Staff WILLIAM H. NICHOLAS Editorial Staff F.BARROWS COLTON Editorial Staff BOARD OF TRUSTEES ROBERT V. FLEMING President and Chairman of the Board, Riggs National Bank H. H. ARNOLD General, U. S.A.,Commanding U. S.Army Air Forces LEROY A. LINCOLN President Metropolitan Life Insurance Company EMORY S.LAND Rear Admiral U. S.Navy, Retired; Chairman U. S.Maritime Commission DAVID FAIRCHILD Special Agricultural Explorer, U. S.Department ofAgriculture ALEXANDER WETMORE Assistant Secretary, Smithsonian Institution GILBERT GROSVENOR Editor ofNational Geographic Magazine FRANKLIN L.FISHER Chief Illustrations Division MAYNARD OWEN WILLIAMS Chief Foreign Editorial Staff W. ROBERT MOORE Foreign Editorial Staff INEZ B.RYAN Research Assistant EDWIN L.WISHERD Chief Photographic Laboratory WALTER MEAYERS EDWARDS Illustrations Division JOHN J.PERSHING General of the Armies ofthe United States CHARLES F.KETTERING President General Motors Research Corporation CHARLES G. DAWES Formerly Vice-President ofthe United States JUAN T.TRIPPE President Pan American Airways ELISHA HANSON Lawyer and Naturalist LLOYD B.WILSON President Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Companies ERNEST E.NORRIS President Southern Railway System JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE Associate Editor of the National Geographic Magazine ORGANIZED FOR "THE INCREASE AND DIFFUSION OF GEOGRAPHIC KNOWLEDGE" To carry out thepurposes for which itwas founded fifty-six years ago,the National Geographic Society publishes this Magazine monthly. All receipts are in vested in The Magazine itself or expended directly to promote geographic knowledge. Articles and photographs are desired. For material The Magazine uses,generous remuneration ismade. In addition to theeditorial and photographic surveys constantly being made, The Society has sponsored more than 100 scientific expeditions, some of which required years of field work toachieve their objectives. The Society's notable expeditions have pushed back the historic horizonsof the southwestern United States to a period nearlyeight centuries before Columbus crossed the Atlantic.Bydating the ruins of the vast communal dwellingsinthat region, The Society's re searches solved secrets that had puzzled historians for three hundred years. In Mexico, The Society and the Smithsonian Institu tion, January 16, 1939, discovered the oldest work ofman in the Americas for which we have adate. This slab of stone is engraved in Mayan characters with adate which means November 4,291 B.c.(Spinden Correlation). It antedates by 200 years anything heretofore dated in America, and revealsagreat center of early American culture, previously unknown. On November 11,1935, inaflight sponsored jointly by the National Geographic Society and the U. S.Army Air Corps, the world's largest balloon, Explorer II,as cended to the world altitude record of72,395 feet. Capt. Albert W. Stevens and Capt. Orvil A. Anderson took aloft inthe gondola nearly aton ofscientific instru ments, and obtained results of extraordinary value. The National Geographic Society-U. S.Navy Expe dition camped on desert Canton Island inmid-Pacific and successfully photographed and observed the solar eclipse of1937. The Society has taken part inmany projects toincrease knowledge ofthe sun. The Society cooperated with Dr. William Beebe indeep-sea explorations off Bermuda, during which aworld record depth of3,028 feet was attained. The Society granted $25,000, and inaddition $75,000 was given by individual members, to the Government when the congressional appropriation for the purpose was insufficient, and the finest of the giant sequoia trees inthe Giant Forest of Sequoia National Park ofCalifornia were thereby saved for the American people. One ofthe world's largest icefields and glacial systems outside the polar regions was discovered inAlaska and Yukon by Bradford Washburn while exploring for The Society and the Harvard Institute ofExploration, 1938. Copyright, 1944, by National Geographic Society, Washington, D. C.International Copyright secured. All rights reserved. Quedan reservados todos los derechos. Printed in U. S. A. Entered atthe Post Office at Washington, D.C., as Second-Class Mail Matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate ofpostage provided for in Sec. 1103, Act of October 3,1917, authorized July 1,1918. Cover design and names registered inUnited States Patent Office. Marca Registrada.