National Geographic : 1945 Sep
The National Geographic Society's Map of Northeastern United States W ITH this issue of their MAGAZINE, the 1,250,000 member-families of the National Geographic Society receive a map supplement of the foremost industrial region in the world-the Northeastern United States.* Printed in 10 colors on a sheet 41 by 262 inches, the new map contains 10,437 place names, more than any other chart ever pro duced by your Society. The 530,000 square miles portrayed encom pass America's giant "manufacturing belt." This region embraces only 12 percent of the area of continental United States and 4.4 percent of Canada's. Yet here dwell nearly half the population of the United States and almost two-thirds of the Dominion's people. More than 644,000 of the million and a quarter members of the National Geographic Society live within the borders of the new map, which stretches on the north from Ontonagon, Michigan, to the coast of Maine, and on the south from Mount Vernon, Indiana, across Kentucky, West Virginia, and Virginia, to the Atlantic. Included are most of the Great Lakes region and the thickly populated sec tions of Quebec and Ontario. Of the 31,692 persons listed in the 1942-43 edition of Who's Who in America, issued before wartime changed many addresses, more than 18,000 lived in the District of Columbia and the 13 States shown in their entirety. World's Greatest Industrial Output In 1944 the United States produced 199 billion dollars' worth of goods and services. This included 43.5 billion dollars' worth of combat munitions-more than one and a half times the production of the Axis nations. Of 29 major industrial areas in the United States, as designated by the War Production Board, 23 are located in the territory shown on the new map. Factories in those 23 areas produced 73 percent of the Nation's record breaking 1944 output. They employ 70 per cent of the country's wage earners. In the Canadian area covered, manufactur ing and population concentration is also strik ing. This comparatively small section con tains 73 percent of our neighbor country's factories and 84 percent of its factory payroll. Residents of the northeastern United States pay 69 percent of the Nation's income tax; Canadians in the area mapped pay 83 percent of the Dominion's. The map shows how nearly all the huge metropolitan centers in this section owe their growth to strategic geographic locations. Ex cept Indianapolis alone, all are located on navigable water-ocean, lake, river, or canal. New York, heart of a metropolitan area of 11,000,000 people, is the biggest port in the world. From its hundreds of miles of piers nearly three million tons of shipping moved seaward in a single wartime month. Biggest single factor in the early growth of New York City was the Erie Canal. Utiliz ing the Hudson and Mohawk Valleys, the canal made New York the shipping gateway for all the country between the Great Lakes and the Ohio, and between the Mississippi and the Hudson. Later, the New York Cen tral Railroad followed this route. Today New York is the world's chief finan cial center. It leads the Nation in manufac ture of chemicals and clothing.- Every major oil company that does business in the metropo lis has an oil refinery there, and their combined output makes New York one of the biggest petroleum-refining centers in the world. Many more "first's" and "biggest's" could be listed. Great Lakes Cradle Great Cities The Great Lakes, today the world's busiest shipping artery, dominate the area covered by the northwest corner of the new map. Imagine the changes on this continent if they were not there. North America would gain more land than the total area of the British Isles, but at what cost! The Great Lakes project into the heart of the continent's rich grain region and transport most of the grain crop over their waters. They link three-quarters of our Nation's iron ore with the vast coal fields of Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Kentucky, and Virginia. It costs almost four times as much to send a ton of coal by rail from Pittsburgh to Cleve land, 115 miles, as it does to ship by water from Cleveland to Duluth, 800 miles. To ship a ton of coal from Lake Erie to western Lake Superior ports costs only 40 cents, less than many pay to have it carried from curb to cellar. Without the Great Lakes waterway, the huge industrial regions of Chicago, Detroit, * Members may obtain additional copies of the new "Map of Northeastern United States" (and of all other maps published by The Society) by writing to the National Geographic Society, Washington 6, D. C. Prices, in United States and Possessions, 50 each, on paper; $1 on linen; Index, 254. Outside of United States and Possessions, 75~ on paper; $1.25 on linen (postal regulations generally prohibit mailing linen maps outside of Western Hemisphere) ; Index, 504'. All remittances payable in U. S . funds. Postage pre paid.