National Geographic : 1946 Feb
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY GEOGRAPHIC ADMINISTRATION BUILDING SIXTEENTH AND M STREETS NORTHWEST, WASHINGTON 6, D. C. GILBERT GROSVENOR, President ROBERT V. FLEMING, Treasurer HERBERT A. POOLE, Assistant Treasurer LYMAN J. BRIGGS, Chairman, Research Committee ALEXANDER WETMORE, Vice-Chairman, Research Committee JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Vice-President THOMAS W. McKNEW, Secretary VERNON H. BRE\STER, Assistant Secretary MELVIN M. PAYNE, Assistant Secretary KURTZ HANSON, Assistant Secretary EXECUTIVE STAFF OF THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE GILBERT GROSVENOR, EDITOR JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Associate Editor J. R. HILDEBRAND Assistant Editor MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Assistant Editor JAMES M. DARLEY Chief Cartographer NEWMAN BUMSTEAD Research Cartographer CHARLES E. RIDDIFORD Cartographic Staff WELLMAN CHAMBERLIN Cartographic Staff RAYMOND W. WELCH Director of Advertising GILBERT G. LA GORCE Assistant Director of Advertising CHARLES EVANS HUGHES Formerly Chief Justice of the United States WALTER S. GIFFORD President American Telephone and Telegraph Co. WILLIAM V. PRATT SAdmiral U. S . Navy, Retired LYMAN J. BRIGGS Director National Bureau of Standards, Retired GEORGE R. PUTNAM Commissioner of Lighthouses, Retired THEODORE W. NOVES Editor of The Evening Star L. O. COLBERT Rear Admiral, Director U. S . Coast and Geodetic Survey FRANKLIN L. FISHER Chief Illustrations Division, National Geographic Magazine FREDERICK SIMPICH Assistant Editor McFALL KERBEY Chief of School Service LEO A. BORAH Editorial Staff FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH Editorial Staff LEONARD C. ROY Editorial Staff WILLIAM H. NICHOLAS Editorial Staff F. BARROWS COLTON Editorial Staff INEZ B. RYAN Research Assistant BOARD OF TRUSTEES ROBERT V. FLEMING President and Chairman of the Board, Riggs National Bank H. H . ARNOLD General of the Army, Commanding General, U. S. Army Air Forces LEROY A. LINCOLN President Metropolitan Life Insurance Company EMORY S. LAND Vice Admiral U. S . Navy, Retired; Chairman U.S . Maritime Commission DAVID FAIRCHILD Special Agricultural Explorer, U. S. Department of Agriculture ALEXANDER WETMORE Secretary Smithsonian Institution GILBERT GROSVENOR Editor of National Geographic Magazine MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Assistant Editor,National Geographic Magazine FRANKLIN L. FISHER Chief Illustrations Division MAYNARD OWEN WILLIAMS Chief Foreign Editorial Staff W. ROBERT MOORE Foreign Editorial Staff LUIS MARDEN Foreign Editorial Staff EDWIN L. WISHERD Chief Photographic Laboratory WALTER MEAYERS EDWARDS Illustrations Division KIP ROSS Illustrations Division JOHN J. PERSHING General of the Armies of The United States CHARLES F. KETTERING President General Motors Research Corporation CHARLES G. DAWES Formerly Vice-President of the United States JUAN T. TRIPPE President Pan American Airways ELISHA HANSON Lawyer and Naturalist LLOYD B. WILSON Chairman of the Board Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Companies ERNEST E. NORRIS President Southern Railway System JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE Associate Editor of the National Geographic Magazine ORGANIZED FOR "THE INCREASE AND DIFFUSION OF GEOGRAPHIC KNOWLEDGE" To carry out the purposes for which it was founded On November II, 1935, in a flight sponsored jointly fifty-eight years ago, the National Geographic Society by the National Geographic Society and the U. S . Army publishes this Magazine monthly. All receipts are in- Air Corps, the world's largest balloon, Explorer II, as vested in The Magazine itself or expended directly to cended to the world altitude record of 72,395 feet. promote geographic knowledge. Capt. Albert \. Stevens and Capt. Orvil A. Anderson Articles and photographs are desired. For material took aloft in the gondola nearly a ton of scientific instru The Magazine uses, generous remuneration is made. ments, and obtained results of extraordinary value. In addition to the editorial and photographic surveys The National Geographic Society-U . S. Navy Expe constantly being made, The Society has sponsored more dition camped on desert Canton Island in mid-Pacific and than 1oo scientific expeditions, some of which required successfully photographed and observed the solar eclipse years of field work to achieve their objectives, of 1937. The Society has taken part in many projects The Society's notable expeditions have pushed back to increase knowledge of the sun. the historic horizons of the southwestern United States The Society cooperated with Dr. William Beebe in to a period nearly eight centuries before Columbus deep-sea explorations off Bermuda, during which a world crossed the Atlantic. By dating the ruins of the vast record depth of 3,028 feet was attained. communal dwellings in that region, The Society's re searches solved secrets that had puzzled historians for The Society granted $25,0oo, and in addition $75,000 three hundred years. was given by individual members, to the Government In Mexico, The Society and the Smithsonian Institu- when the congressional appropriation for the purpose tion, January 16, 19, discovered the oldest work ofnan was insufficient, and the finest of the giant sequoia trees in the Americas for which we have a date. This slab of in the Giant Forest of Sequoia National Park of California stone is engraved in Mayan characters with a date which were thereby saved for the American people. means November 4, 291 B. c. (Spinden Correlation). It One of the world's largest icefields and glacial systems antedates by 200ooyears anything heretofore dated in outside the polar regions was discovered in Alaska and America, and reveals a great center of early American Yukon by Bradford Washburn while exploring for The culture, previously unknown. Society and the Harvard Institute of Exploration, 1938. Copyright, 1946, by National Geographic Society, Washington, D. C. International Copyright secured. All rights reserved. Quedan reservados todos los derechos. Printed n U. S. A. Entered at the Post Office at Washington, D. C. as Second-Class Mail Matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in See. 1103, Act of October 3. 1917, authorized July 1, 1918. Cover design and names registered in United States Patent Office. Marca Registrada.