National Geographic : 1946 Jul
The National Geographic Magazine The motto, "Liberty and Union, Now and For ever. One and Inseparable," recalls that the terri tory was established at a period when States' rights were a matter of conflict, 1861. It is from what is frequently considered Daniel Webster's greatest speech, made in 1830 in defense of the Union against the doctrine of Nullification. Seal is 2/2 inches in diameter. OHIO, page 23. The State constitution of 1802 provided for a seal, but did not specify a design. One spring night Secretary of State Wil liam Creighton and several other officials worked on State affairs until daybreak. Among other things, they discussed the need for a seal. Standing on the lawn before separating, the men saw the sun rising behind the Mount Logan range. The sight inspired Creighton to exclaim, "The rising sun of the new State!" This scene was adopted in 1803 as the seal design; the bundle of 17 arrows (the number of States in the Union) and a sheaf for agriculture were added later. Many subsequent changes were made, but in 1868 the original design was restored by law. Today the rising sun is in terpreted as the "advance of the power and wealth of the State." The design is painted on the center of the rotunda in the Ohio capitol and appears in bronze above the directory in the north and south vestibules of the Ohio Departments Building, better known as the Ohio State Office Building, in Columbus. Seal is 2 2 inches in diameter. A similar seal with "The Supreme Court of the State of Ohio" on the rim is used by the State's highest tribunal. OKLAHOMA, page 23. Designed by a committee appointed by the constitutional con vention, and adopted by the State constitution, Oklahoma's seal is a combination of six seals: the one for the Indian Territory and the tribal seals of the Five Civilized Tribes in the territory. On a circle a large star represents Oklahoma; it is surrounded by 45 smaller stars to show that Oklahoma was the 46th State in the Union. In the center of the great star is the territorial seal. Under the motto Labor Omnia Vincit, "Labor conquers all things," is a figure representing Justice and Statehood. On her right is the American pioneer farmer, on her left the abo riginal American Indian. Shaking hands under the scales of justice, the figures symbolize equality under the law. Beneath the figures are a cornucopia of plenty and the olive branch (wreath) of peace. Behind the figures are the sun of progress and symbols of progress and civilization-a farmer plowing, rural home, railroad train, compress, mills, ele vator, factories, churches, schools, the capitol, and a city. The five tribal seals are: upper left ray, a seven-pointed star partially surrounded by oak leaves for the Cherokee Nation; top ray, an In dian warrior with bow and shield for the Chicka saw Nation; upper right ray, a tomahawk, bow, and three crossed arrows for the Choctaw Nation; lower right ray, a village with houses and a factory beside a lake on which an Indian is paddling a canoe, for the Seminole Nation; lower left ray, a sheaf of wheat and plow for the Creek Nation. The date 1907 is that of Oklahoma's admission. Colors for the seal, which is 2:%/1 inches in diameter, have not been officially prescribed, but Miss Muriel H. Wright of the Oklahoma His torical Society designed one in color which has met with favor in the State. Some State publi cations show a similar color scheme, but with a gold annulet instead of red. OREGON, page 23. Designed by Harvey Gordon, Oregon's seal was approved by the first Legislature in 1859. In 1903 a new seal was ordered because the one in use was "so at vari ance with the law that it is a wonder someone did not question it when offered in evidence on documents." The seal has a shield supported by 33 stars, the number of States when Oregon joined the Union. An American eagle is the crest. On the shield the Pacific Ocean is shown with a British man-of-war departing and an American steamer arriving, representing the early settle ments and the end of the joint occupancy of the country by Great Britain and the United States. An elk with branching antlers stands on the moun tains, symbolizing native game. The covered wagon recalls the settling of the State. The sheaf, plow, and pickax are for hus bandry and mining. The date 1859 is that of Oregon's admission. Alis Volat Propiis, "She flies with her own wings," was the territorial motto, and for years was generally accepted as the State motto, al though it was never formally adopted. "The Union" is now accepted as the motto, since it is on the seal, but this, too, has never been officially recognized. Seal is 23/ inches in diameter. PENNSYLVANIA, page 23. The State constitutional convention of 1776 provided for a seal for Pennsylvania. Since that time the ob verse has been redrawn several times, but the final form adopted in 1893 conforms to the original. The obverse carries the shield of the coat of arms. Used as early as 1777, the arms were changed several times and officially adopted in 1874. The shield has a ship in full sail at the top, a plow in the center, and three golden sheaves at the bottom. An American eagle is the crest. The horses used as supporters on the arms are replaced on the seal by a stalk of Indian corn and an olive branch. The reverse of the seal is the same as originally used. It shows a woman with a wand topped by a liberty cap in her left hand and a drawn sword in her right. She is trampling a lion, representing Tyranny crushed. The inscription is "Both Can't Survive," the "both" meaning Liberty and Tyranny. No colors are provided for the reverse. The double seal is used on important documents signed by the governor.