National Geographic : 1946 Jul
The National Geographic Magazine In 1945 the Legislature adopted a State "emblem" showing a view of the Old Man of the Mountains. This device is planned for use on publications and stationery; it should not be confused with the State seal design, used for the same purpose for many years. Seal is 2 inches in diameter. NEW JERSEY, page 21. In 1776 Francis Hopkinson was authorized by the Legislature of New Jersey to engage an artist to design a seal according to a description drawn up by a State committee. He gave the commission to Pierre Eugene du Simitiere (see Great Seal of the United States, page 35). That artist's design differed in several particulars from the specifications laid down by the State committee, but it was accepted. Used with numerous changes in details, the seal was minutely described by a law enacted in 1928, and Warren E. Deming, a Jersey City artist, drew the official picture. The shield shows three plowshares. The sup porters are two female figures, Liberty and Ceres. The crest is a horse's head. The sovereign's helmet, the mantling, and the date, introduced by Du Simitiere, were retained. The words "Lib erty and Prosperity," originally added without legislative approval, were given official sanction in 1928. Seal is 2 inches in diameter. A painting of the seal now hanging in the office of the secretary of state and a stained-glass window in the rotunda of the State House show early interpretations of the colors. A mosaic of the seal in the portico of the State House follows the colors established in 1928. NEW MEXICO, page 21. In 1913 the State Legislature appointed a committee to select a seal for the State and provided that the terri torial seal, with the word "State" substituted for "Territory," be used until a new one could be provided. The original seal is still in use. The Mexican eagle grasps a serpent in its beak and the cactus in its talons. It is shielded by the large American eagle, grasping arrows in its talons. The motto is Crescit Eundo, "It grows as it goes," taken from Lucretius' De Rerum Natura, "Con cerning the Nature of Things." The Mexican eagle with the serpent in its mouth appears on the Mexican coat of arms. According to a legend, Montezuma was born in Pecos Pueblo, New Mexico. When he was a young man he mounted the back of an eagle and started south, followed by a number of his people. When the eagle alighted upon a cactus and seized a serpent with his bill, Montezuma recognized this as a sign that he had reached the place where he should found the city which became the capital of the Aztec Empire, the future Mexico City. The New Mexican historian who supplied this legend commented, "The Montezuma birthplace is absurd, but in the 1880's, when the territorial seal was designed, the story was very popular." The date 1912 is that of the State's admission to the Union. Seal is 2M inches in diameter. NEW YORK, page 21. The seal of New York was originally approved by the provincial congress in 1778, but several changes were made in later years. No official description of the seal could be found in State records; so the Legisla ture in 1882 adopted the seal again, describing it from a specimen of one used in 1778. The seal carries the arms of the State. The shield has a landscape with the sun rising behind three mountains. A ship and sloop are passing on the river which flows below the mountains. The crest is a heraldic interpretation of the American eagle, standing on two-thirds of a ter restrial globe; the globe is turned to show the Atlantic Ocean and the outlines of its shores. Liberty is the supporter on the left side of the design. Her hair is disheveled and decorated with pearls. She holds a staff with a Phrygian cap (page 9). At her foot is a royal crown. Justice, at the right, also has pearls in disheveled hair. Her eyes are bound. She holds a sword in her right hand and scales in her left. The motto is Excelsior, "Higher," sometimes trans lated "Ever Upward." Seal is 22 inches in diameter. The arms which form the center of the seal are prescribed by law to be painted on wood or canvas and hung upon the walls of the executive chamber, court of ap peals, office of the secretary of state, and in the State Senate and Assembly chambers. NORTH CAROLINA, page 21. The North Carolina seal, in use since 1893, is the fourth adopted since the first State seal of 1779. The first seal carried the figure of Minerva, goddess of war, on the obverse, and Ceres, god dess of agriculture, on the reverse. The figures in the current seal are called "Liberty" and "Plenty." In her left hand Liberty has a pole surmounted by a liberty cap, and in her right a scroll with the word "Constitution." Plenty has three heads of wheat in her right hand; she holds a horn of plenty with her left. At the top is the date May 20, 1775, in honor of the "Mecklenburg Declaration of Independ ence." The motto is Esse Quam Videri, "To be rather than to seem." It is taken from Cicero's essay, De Amicitia, "Concerning Friendship." Seal is 2% inches in diameter. NORTH DAKOTA, page 23. The terri torial seal of North Dakota, designed by William Shober, was adopted by the State constitution; the only changes were in the arrangement of the words in the motto, and "three bundles of wheat" were substituted for the "bundles of sticks" of the original. A tree in an open field is surrounded by the three bundles of wheat. A plow, anvil, and sledge are at the right. A bow crossed with three arrows, and an Indian on horseback pursuing a buffalo toward the setting sun, are on the left. The foliage of the tree is surrounded with 42 stars, number of States in the Union in November, 1889, month of North Dakota's admission. The date October 1, 1889, is that of its constitution.