National Geographic : 1946 Jul
The National Geographic Magazine English patriot who had served under Cromwell, in the Book of Mottoes in the King's library at Copenhagen. At that time French influence was great in Denmark, and the French ambassador, feeling that the lines were a slur on Louis XIV, whom Sydney regarded as a "king of slaves," was so angry that he is reported to have torn them out of the book. Massachusetts translates the motto, "By the sword we seek peace, but peace only under lib erty." John Quincy Adams made two transla tions of both lines, the one in 1842 being more literal: This hand, the rule of tyrants to oppose, Seeks with the sword fair freedom's soft repose. The motto was popular with the Colonies and was adopted in 1775 by the provincial congress as a message for England. Around the seal, 2% inches in diameter, are the words Sigillum Reipublicae Massachusetten sis, "Seal of the Republic of Massachusetts." MICHIGAN, page 19. Lewis Cass, Michi gan's second territorial governor (1813-1831), designed the seal and coat of arms. Adopted in 1835, the design underwent a series of changes; in 1911 the Legislature readopted the original. Michigan's seal is very similar to that of the Hudson's Bay Company, but uses different ani mals. The shield shows a man on a peninsula bordered by a lake. The motto Tuebor, "I will defend," may have come from the arms of Viscount Torrington of Kent, England. The motto refers to Michigan's position on the fron tier and is her promise to defend her sister States. The Ambassador Bridge at Detroit between the United States and Canada, however, is more representative of Michigan's relation to her neighbor. It bears the inscription, "The visible expression of friendship in the hearts of two peoples with like ideas and ideals." The American eagle appears over the shield as a crest. The streamer carries the words E Pluribus Unum (see Great Seal of United States, page 35). The supporters are an elk and a moose. The streamer on which they stand has the motto Si Quaeris Peninsulam Amoenam Circumspice, "If you seek a pleasant peninsula, look about you." This is based on the inscription on the north door of St. Paul's Cathedral, London, which memorializes Sir Christopher Wren, architect of the building. The Wren inscription is translated, "If you would seek his monument, look around you." Seal is 22 inches in diameter. The design hangs on the walls of the executive chamber, the office of the secretary of state, the supreme court room, and the houses of the Legislature. MINNESOTA, page 21. The Minnesota seal was adopted in 1858, the year of the State's admission to the Union. The seal's "essential designer" was Col. John J. Abert, of the Topo- graphical Engineers, though the original design was modified by Capt. Seth Eastman and Gover nor Henry H. Sibley. The plowman watching the Indian riding toward the setting sun is interpreted as the advance of white civilization upon the Indian. The gun resting against the tree stump shows an era of transition, when it was still necessary for the settlers to protect themselves from the Indians; it also reveals the necessity of supple menting agriculture with hunting. The waterfall represents a characteristic feature of the State; it may be the Falls of St. Anthony. The motto L'Etoile du Nord, "Star of the North," is a reference to Minnesota's geographic position. (See the Maine seal, page 16.) The use of French is a reminder that the territory was first explored by men from France. As seal presses have been worn out and re placed, minor changes have crept in. At one time the Indian rode slowly toward the West; at present he is galloping. One commentator writes, "Doubtless the engraver thought that the design would be improved by a little show of action." Seal is 2 8 inches in diameter. MISSISSIPPI, page 21. The seal of Missis sippi has been used since 1817, when the State was admitted to the Union. This seal was based on the territorial seal, which in turn was based on the Great Seal of the United States (page 35). By law the design is an American eagle with four arrows in the right talon and a fruited olive branch in the left. The specimen supplied for this study, however, shows the olive branch in the eagle's right talon and a single arrow in its left. The olive branch in the right talon accords more closely with the United States Seal, and it is heraldically preferable, since it implies that peace is offered first and that war is threatened only after peace has been refused. Although the law specifies four arrows and the actual seal has one, State publications show three. The star on the rim has only five points, although the law specifies six. Seal is 2% inches in diameter. In 1918 the Legislature provided that each county should provide itself with a seal "with the name in the margin and in the center an eagle." MISSOURI, page 21. Approved by the Gen eral Assembly in 1822, the seal of Missouri was designed by Judge Robert William Wells, who described the design in heraldic terms and ex plained its significance in minute detail. The circular shield in the center is divided; the left side represents the State, and the right the United States. The crescent at upper left was adopted as indicating that the State would increase in wealth and population. In heraldry, the crescent is used as a "label" to indicate a second son, and Missouri was the second State (Louisiana was the first) formed out of territory not in the original territorial limits of the United States.