National Geographic : 1946 Jul
The National Geographic Magazine by Colorado; green by Missouri; white by Utah; gold by New Jersey. Several States use two colors. Arizona uses old gold and blue; Arkansas blue and red; Mary land yellow (gold) and black; Nevada silver and blue; Oregon blue and cardinal; New Mexico gold and red; Oklahoma green and white; West Virginia blue and gold. Tennessee formerly used green but now uses red, white, and blue. Indiana in the past also has used the three national colors. Designs from seals (or arms when they are similar) are used on State flags by Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Iowa (eagle and streamer only), Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland (shield from re verse), Massachusetts (on obverse of flag), Mich igan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Oregon, Pennsylvania (arms), Rhode Island, South Dakota (on reverse of flag), Utah, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, and Wyoming. Of these, 19 use a blue field with the seal design in the center. Flags for the governors of California, Dela ware, Massachusetts, Michigan, Pennsylvania, and Rhode Island also use designs found on seals. State Guard shoulder sleeve insignia for Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland, Michigan, Penn sylvania, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Vir ginia are also based on the seal design.* ALABAMA, page 17. The great seal of Alabama is a new-old design. William Wyatt Bibb originated it in 1817 when he was the first governor of the Territory of Alabama. The seal was continued until 1868 when, accord ing to a State publication, "the Reconstruc tion Legislature, made up in large part of men from other States who had come to Alabama as 'Carpetbaggers' to take over the affairs of the State, after the War Between the States . . abolished . . . the beautiful old seal which was definitely an Alabama emblem. . . . They desired to brand the people of Alabama, who had so lately been in arms against the Union, with a United States emblem." This seal showed an American eagle resting on a shield of the United States; in its beak the eagle carried a scroll with the motto "Here We Rest." The first State seal was restored in 1939, largely through efforts of the Alabama Division, United Daughters of the Confederacy. The seal, 2 4 inches in diameter, shows a map of the territory with the rivers clearly outlined, because, in the days of few good roads, heavy shipping was done by river boats. Selec tion of this natural feature is today considered prophetic. Although trains, trucks, and airplanes have robbed the rivers of many passengers and much freight, they play an even greater role as the source of hydroelectric power. ARIZONA, page 17. The constitutional convention of 1910 adopted a design for the seal of Arizona drawn by E. E. Motter, a newspaper artist then living in Phoenix. The seal, 24 inches in diameter, symbolizes the geographic resources of the State. A range of mountains, with the sun rising behind the peaks, is in the background. At the right of the mountains appear a storage reservoir and dam. Cattle graze in front of irrigated fields and orchards. On the left a miner with a pick and shovel stands before a quartz mill. The motto is Ditat Deus, "God enriches." The date 1912 is that of the State's admission to the Union. The design, 15 feet in diameter, is laid in colored tile on the floor of the capitol under the rotunda. In 1944 the Motor Vehicle Division of Arizona used a windshield sticker showing the seal in colors as evidence of automobile registra tion for cars which carried 1942 license plates. ARKANSAS, page 17. The seal of Arkansas as adopted in 1864 was based on the original seal designed by Samuel Calhoun Roane and adopted by the territory in 1820. The motto was modi fied in 1907. The seal shows: "An eagle at the bottom holding a scroll in its beak inscribed Regnat Populous,'The people rule,' a bundle of arrows in one claw and an olive branch in the other; a shield covering the breast of the eagle engraved with a steamboat at top, a plow and beehive in the middle, and a sheaf of wheat at the bottom; the Goddess of Liberty at the top, holding a wreath in her right hand, a pole in the left hand, surmounted by a liberty cap, and sur rounded by a circle of stars, outside of which is a circle of rays; the figure of an angel on the left, inscribed 'Mercy,' and a sword on the right, inscribed 'Justice.' " Seal is 2/8 inches in diameter. Seals of other State and county officials and courts show the same device, but the words in the annulet indi cate the office to which they belong, as "Seal of the Secretary of State, Arkansas," etc. CALIFORNIA, page 17. The design of the California seal, adopted by the constitutional convention in 1849, was drawn by Maj. Robert S. Garnett, U. S. A., who asked Caleb Lyon, assistant secretary of the convention, to present the design as his own. Mr. Lyon did; but he did not claim to be the sole author. Thirty-one stars at the top represent the num ber of States upon the admission of California. The goddess Minerva, who sprang full-grown from the brain of Jupiter, typifies the political birth of the State of California, which never went through the stage of being a territory. The grizzly bear, feeding upon the clusters from a grapevine, was a famous denizen of the State at the time of creation of the seal. The sheaf of wheat and bunch of grapes represent agricultural and horticultural interests. A miner, with rocker and bowl at his side, illus trates the golden wealth of the Sacramento. The ship stands for commercial greatness; the snow * See "Insignia and Decorations of the U. S. Armed Forces," published in 1945 by the National Geo graphic Society.