National Geographic : 1946 Oct
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY GEOGRAPHIC ADMINISTRATION BUILDING SIXTEENTH AND MSTREETS NORTHWEST, WASHINGTON 6,D.C. GILBERT GROSVENOR, President ROBERT V. FLEMING, Treasurer HERBERT A. POOLE, Assistant Treasurer LYMAN J. BRIGGS,Chairman, Research Committee ALEXANDER WETMORE, Vice-Chairman, Research Committee JOHN OLIVER LAGORCE, Vice-President THOMAS W.McKNEW, Secretary VERNON H.BREWSTER, Assistant Secretary MELVIN M.PAYNE, Assistant Secretary KURTZ M.HANSON, Assistant Secretary EXECUTIVE STAFF OFTHE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE GILBERT GROSVENOR, EDITOR JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Associate Editor J. R. HILDEBRAND Assistant Editor MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Assistant Editor JAMES M. DARLEY Chief Cartographer NEWMAN BUMSTEAD Research Cartographer CHARLES E. RIDDIFORD Cartographic Staff WELLMAN CHAMBERLIN SCartographic Staff RAYMOND W. WELCH Director of Advertising GILBERT G. LA GORCE Assistant Director ofAdvertising CHARLES EVANS HUGHES Formerly Chief Justice ofthe United States WALTER S. GIFFORD President AmericanTelephone and Telegraph Co. WILLIAM V. PRATT Admiral U. S . Navy,Retired LYMAN J. BRIGGS Director National Bureau of Standards, Retired EMORY S. LAND Vice Admiral Construction Corps, U. S . Navy, Retired; President, Air Transport Association GEORGE R. PUTNAM Commissioner of Lighthouses, Retired L. O. COLBERT Rear Admiral, Director U.S.Coast and Geodetic Survey FRANKLIN L. FISHER Chief Illustrations Division, National Geographic Magazine FREDERICK SIMPICH Assistant Editor McFALL KERBEY Chief Research Division LEO A.BORAH Editorial Staff FREDERICK G.VOSBURGH Editorial Staff LEONARD C.ROY Chief ofSchool Service WILLIAM H.NICHOLAS Editorial Staff F.BARROWS COLTON Editorial Staff INEZ B.RYAN Research Assistant BOARD OF TRUSTEES ROBERT V.FLEMING President and Chairman ofthe Board, Riggs National Bank H.H.ARNOLD General ofthe Army, Retired Formerly Commanding General U.S.Army Air Forces LEROY A.LINCOLN President Metropolitan Life Insurance Company THEODORE W.NOYES Editor ofThe Evening Star DAVID FAIRCHILD Special Agricultural Explorer, U.S.Department ofAgriculture ALEXANDER WETMORE Secretary Smithsonian Institution GILBERT GROSVENOR Editor ofNational Geographic Magazine MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Assistant Editor,National Geographic Magazine FRANKLIN L.FISHER Chief Illustrations Division MAYNARD OWEN WILLIAMS Chief Foreign Editorial Staff W.ROBERT MOORE Foreign Editorial Staff LUIS MARDEN Foreign Editorial Staff THEODORE F.KOOP Chief News Bulletin Service EDWIN L.WISHERD Chief Photographic Laboratory WALTER MEAYERS EDWARDS Illustrations Division KIP ROSS Illustrations Division JOHN J.PERSHING General oftheArmies ofThe United States CHARLES F.KETTERING President General Motors Research Corporation CHARLES G.DAWES Formerly Vice-President ofthe United States JUAN T.TRIPPE President Pan American Airways ELISHA HANSON Lawyer and Naturalist LLOYD B.WILSON Chairman ofthe Board Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Companies ERNEST E.NORRIS President Southern Railway System JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE Associate Editor ofthe National Geographic Magazine ORGANIZED FOR"THE INCREASE AND DIFFUSION OFGEOGRAPHIC KNOWLEDGE" To carry out the purposes forwhich itwas founded fifty-eight years ago, the National Geographic Society publishes this Magazine monthly. All receipts arein vested in The Magazine itself orexpended directly to promote geographic knowledge. Articles and photographs aredesired. For material The Magazine uses, generous remuneration ismade. In addition to the editorial and photographic surveys constantly being made,The Society has sponsored more than 10o scientific expeditions, some ofwhich required years of field work to achieve their objectives. The Society's notable expeditions have pushed back the historic horizons of the southwestern United States to a period nearly eight centuries before Columbus crossed the Atlantic. By dating the ruins ofthe vast communal dwellings inthat region, The Society's re searches solved secretsthat had puzzled historians for three hundred years. In Mexico, The Society and the Smithsonian Institu tion, January 16, 1939,discovered the oldest work ofman in the Americas for which wehave adate. This slab of stone is engraved in Mayan characters with adate which means November 4, 291 B.c.(Spinden Correlation). It antedates by 200 years anything heretofore dated in America, and revealsagreat center ofearly American culture, previously unknown. OnNovember Ii,1935, inaflight sponsored jointly bythe National Geographic Society and the U.S.Army Air Corps, the world's largest balloon, Explorer II,ascended totheworld altitude record of72,395 feet. Capt. Albert W.Stevens and Capt. Orvil A.Anderson took aloft inthegondola nearly aton ofscientific instru ments, and obtained results ofextraordinary value. The National Geographic Society-U. S.Navy Expe dition camped ondesert Canton Island inmid-Pacific and successfully photographed and observed the solar eclipse of1937. The Society has taken part inmany projects toincrease knowledge ofthe sun. The Society cooperated with Dr. William Beebe indeep-sea explorations offBermuda, during which aworld record depth of3,028 feet was attained. The Society granted $25,000, and inaddition $75,000 was given byindividual members, totheGovernment when the congressional appropriation forthe purpose was insufficient, and the finest ofthe giant sequoia trees intheGiant Forest ofSequoia National Park ofCalifornia were thereby saved fortheAmerican people. One ofthe world's largest icefields and glacial systems outside the polar regions was discovered inAlaska and Yukon byBradford Washburn while exploring forThe Society and the Harvard Institute ofExploration, 1938. Copyright, 1946, by National Geographic Society, Washington, D.C.International Copyright secured. Allrights reserved. Quedan reservados todos losderechos. Printed in U. S. A. Entered at the Post Office atWashington, D.C.,asSecond-Class Mail Matter. Acceptance formailing atspecial rate ofpostage provided for in Sec. 1103, Act of October 3,1917, authorized July 1,1918. Cover design and names registered inUnited States Patent Office. Marca Registrada.