National Geographic : 1947 Sep
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY GEOGRAPHIC ADMINISTRATION BUILDING SIXTEENTH AND MSTREETS NORTHWEST. WASHINGTON 6.D.C. GILBERT GROSVENOR, President ROBERT V. FLEMING, Treasurer HERBERT A. POOLE, Assistant Treasurer LYMAN J. BRIGGS, Chairman, Research Committee ALEXANDER WETMORE, Vice-Chairman, Research Committee JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Vice-President THOMAS W. McKNEW, Secretary VERNON H. BREWSTER, Assistant Secretary MELVIN M. PAYNE, Assistant Secretary KURTZ M. HANSON, Assistant Secretary EXECUTIVE STAFF OF THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE GILBERT GROSVENOR, EDITOR JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Associate Editor J. R. IILDEBRAND Assistant Editor MELVILLE BELLGROSVENOR Assistant Editor JAMES M. DARLEY Chief Cartographer NEWMAN BUMSTEAD Research Cartographer CHARLES E. RIDI)IFORD Cartographic Staff WELLMAN CHAMBERLIN Cartographic Staff RAYMOND W. WELCH Director of Advertising GILBERT G. LA GORCE Assistant DirectorofAdvertising CHARLES EVANSHUGHES Formerly Chief Justice ofthe United States WALTER S. GIFFORD President American Telephone and Telegraph Co. WILLIAM V. PRATT Admiral U. S . Navy, Retired LYMAN J. BRIGGS Director NationalBureau of Standards, Retired EMORY S. LAND Vice Admiral Construction Corps, U. S. Navy, Retired; President, Air Transport Association GEORGE R. PUTNAM Commissioner of Lighthouses, Retired L. O, COLBERT Rear Admiral, Director U.S.Coast and Geodetic Survey FRANKLIN L. FISHER Chief IllustrationsDivision, National Geographic Magazine FREDERICK SIMPICII Assistant Editor McFALL KERBEY Chief Research Division LEO A.BORAH Editorial Staff FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH Editorial Staff LEONARD C.ROY Chief ofSchool Service WILLIAM I.NICHOLAS Editorial Staff F.BARROWS COLTON Editorial Staff INEZ B.RYAN Research Assistant BOARD OF TRUSTEES ROBERT V.FLEMING President and Chairman oftlhe Board, Riggs National Bank H. II.ARNOLD General ofthe Army, Retired Formerly Commanding General U.S.Army Air Forces LEROY A.LINCOLN President Metropolitan Life Insurance Company JUAN T.TRIPPE President Pan American Airways DAVID FAIRCHILDI Special Agricultural Explorer, U. S.Department ofAgriculture ALEXANDER WETMORE Secretary Smithsonian Institution GILBERT GROSVENOR Editor ofNational Geographic Magazine MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Assistant Editor, National Geographic Magazine FRANKLIN L.FISHER Chief Illustrations Division MAYNARD OWEN WILLIAMS Chief Foreign Editorial Staff W. ROBERT MOORE Foreign Editorial Staff LUIS MARDEN Foreign Editorial Staff THEODORE F.KOOP Chief News Bulletin Service EDWIN L.WISHERD Chief Photographic Laboratory WALTER MEAYERS EDWARDS Illustrations Division KIP ROSS Illustrations Division JOHN J.PERSIING General ofthe Armies ofThe United States CHARLES F.KETTERING President General Motors Research Corporation CHARLES G. DAWES Formerly Vice-President ofthe United States ELISHA IANSON Lawyer and Naturalist LLOYD B.WILSON Chairman ofthe Board Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Companies ERNEST E.NORRIS President Southern Railway System JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE Associate Editor ofthe National Geographic Magazine J.R. HILDEBRAND Assistant Editor, National Geographic Magazine ORGANIZED FOR "THE INCREASE AND DIFFUSION OF GEOGRAPHIC KNOWLEDGE" To carry out thepurposes for which itwas founded fifty-nine years ago,the National Geographic Society publishes this Magazine monthly. All receipts arein vested in The Magazine itself or expended directly to promote geographicknowledge. Articles and photographs are desired. For material The Magazine uses,generous remuneration ismade. In addition to theeditorial and photographic surveys constantly being made, The Society has sponsored more than too scientific expeditions, some of which required years of field work to achieve their objectives. The Society's notable expeditions have pushed back the historic horizonsofthe southwestern United States to a period nearlyeight centuries before Columbus crossed the Atlantic.By dating the ruins ofthe vast communal dwellingsinthat region, The Society's re searches solved secrets that had puzzled historians for three hundred years. In Mexico, The Society and the Smithsonian Institu tion, January 16, 1939, discovered the oldest work of man in the Americas forwhich we have adate. This slab of stone is engraved inMayan characters with adate which means November 4,291 B.c.(Spinden Correlation). It antedates by 200 years anything heretofore dated in America, and reveals agreat center of early American culture, previously unknown. On November II,1935, inaflight sponsored jointly by the National Geographic Society and the U.S.Army Air Corps, the world's largest balloon, Explorer II,as cended tothe world altitude record of72,395 feet. Capt. Albert W. Stevens and Capt. Orvil A. Anderson took aloft inthe gondola nearly aton ofscientific instru ments, and obtained results ofextraordinary value. The National Geographic Society-U. S.Navy Expe dition camped on desert Canton Island inmid-Pacific and successfully photographed and observed the solar eclipse of1937. The Society has taken part inmany projects toincrease knowledge ofthe sun. The Society cooperated with Dr. William Beebe indeep-sea explorations off Bermuda, during which aworld record depth of3,028 feet was attained. The Society granted $25,000, and inaddition $75,000 was given by individual members, tothe Government when the congressional appropriation for the purpose was insufficient, and the finest ofthe giant sequoia trees inthe Giant Forest ofSequoia National Park ofCalifornia were thereby saved for the American people. One ofthe world's largest icefields and glacial systems outside the polar regions was discovered inAlaska and Yukon by Bradford Washburn while exploring for The Society and the Harvard Institute ofExploration, 1938. I Copyright. 1947. by National Geographic Society, Washington. D.C.International Copyright secured. All rights reserved. Quedan reservados todos los derechos. Printed in U. S. A. Entered atthe Post Office atWashington, D.C.. asSecond-Class Mail Matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate ofpostage provided for in Sec. 1103, Act of October 3.1917, authorized July 1.1918. Cover design and names registered inUnited States Patent Office. Marca Registrada.