National Geographic : 1947 Oct
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY GEOGRAPHIC ADMINISTRATION BUILDING SIXTEENTH AND M STREETS NORTHWEST. WASHINGTON 6, D. C. GILBERT GROSVENOR, President ROBERT V. FLEMING, Treasurer llERBERT A. POOLE, Assistant Treasurer LYMAN J. BRIGGS, Chairman, Research Committee ALEXANDER WETMORE, Vice-Clairman, Research Committee JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Vice-President THOMAS W. McKNEW, Secretary VERNON H. BREWSTER, Assistant Secretary MELVIN M. PAYNE, Assistant Secretary KLURTZ M. HANSON, Assistant Secretary EXECUTIVE STAFF OF THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE GILBERT GROSVENOR, EDITOR JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Associate Editor J. R. IILDEIBRAND Assistant Editor MEL VILLE BELL GROSVENOR Assistant Editor JAMES M. DARLEY Chief Cartographer NEWMI'MAN BUJMSTIEAI) Research Cartographer CHARLES E. RII)DIFORDI Cartographic Staff WEILLMAN CHAM BERLIN Cartographic Staff RAYMOND WV. \VELCII Director of Advertising GILBERT G. LA GORCE Assistant Director of Advertising CHIIARLES EVANS IIGIIESS Formerly Chief Justice of the United States WALTER S. GIFFORD President American Telephone and Telegraph Co. WILIAIM V. PRATT Admiral U. S. Navy, Retired LYMAN J. BRIGGS Director National Bureau of Standards, Retired EMORY S. LAND Vice Admiral Construction Corps, U. S. Navy, Retired; President, Air Transport Association GEORGE R. PUTNAM Commissioner of Lighthouses, Retired L. O. COLBERT Rear Admiral, Director U. S . Coast and Geodetic Survey FRANKLIN L. FISHER Chief Illustrations Division, National Geographic Magazine FREDERICK SIMPICII Assistant Editor McFALL KERBEY Chief Research Division LEO A. BORAH Editorial Staff FREDERICK G. VOSBURGII Editorial Staff LEONARD C. ROY Chief of School Service WILLIAM H. NICHOLAS Editorial Staff F. BARROWS COLTON Editorial Staff INEZ B. RYAN Research Assistant BOARD OF TRUSTEES ROBERT V. FLEMING President and Chairman of the Board, Riggs National Bank II. II . ARNOLI) General of the Army, Retired Formerly Commanding General U. S. Army Air Forces LEROY A. LINCOLN President Metropolitan Life Insurance Company JUAN T. TRIPPE President Pan American Airways DAVID FAIRCIIILD.) Special Agricultural Explorer, U. S. Department of Agriculture ALEXANDER WETMORE Secretary Smithsonian Institution GILBERT GROSVENOR Editor of National Geographic Magazine MELVIILE BELL GROSVENOR Assistant Editor, National Geographic Magazine FRANKLIN L. FISHER Chief Illustrations Division MAYNARI) OWEN WILLIAMS Chief Foreign Editorial Staff W. ROBERT MOORE Foreign Editorial Staff LUIS MARIEN Foreign Editorial Staff TIIEOIORE F. KOOP Chief News Bulletin Service EDWIN L. WVISIIERD Chief Phiotographic Laboratory WALTER MEAYVERS EDWIARDS Illustrations Division KIP ROSS Illustrations Division JOHN J. PERSIIING General of the Armies of Thle United States CHARLES F. KETTERING President General Motors Research Corporation CHIARLES G. DAWES Formerly Vice-President of the United States E.ISHIA IIANSON Lawyer and Naturalist LLOYD B. WIILSON Chairman of the Board Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Companies ERNEST E. NORRIS President Southern Railway System JOIN OLIVER LA GORCE Associate Editor of the National Geographic Magazine J. R. IIILDEBRAND Assistant Editor, National Geographic Magazine ORGANIZED FOR "THE INCREASE AND DIFFUSION OF GEOGRAPHIC KNOWLEDGE" To carry out the purposes for which it was founded On November II, 1935, in a flight sponsored jointly fifty-nine years ago, the National Geographic Society by the National Geographic Society and the U1. S. Army publishes this Magazine monthly. All receipts are in- Air Corps, the world's largest balloon, Explorer 11, as vested in Thle Magazine itself or expended directly to cended to the world altitude record of 72,395 feet. promote geographic knowledge. Capt. Albert W. Stevens and Capt. Orvil A. Anderson Articles and photographs are desired. For material took aloft in the gondola nearly a ton of scientific instru The Magazine uses, generous remuneration is made. ments, and obtained results of extraordinary value. In addition to the editorial and photographic surveys The National Geographic Society-I'. S. Navy Expe constantly being made, The Society has sponsored more dition camped on desert Canton Island in mid-Pacific and than too scientific expeditions, some of which required successfully photographed and observed the solar eclipse years of field work to achieve their objectives, of 1937. The Society has taken part in many projects Tlie Society's notable expeditions have pushed back to increase knowledge of the sun. the historic horizons of the southwestern United States The Society cooperated with Dr. William Beebe in to a period nearly eight centuries before Columbus deep-sea explorations off Bermuda, during which a world crossed the Atlantic. By dating the ruins of the vast record depth of 3,028 feet was attained. communal dwellings in that region, The Society's re searches solved secrets that had puzzled historians for The Society granted $25,000, and in addition $75,000 three hundred years. was given by individual members, to the Government In Mexico, lTheSociety and the Smithsonian Institu- when the congressional appropriation for the purpose tion, January I, t939, discovered the oldest work of man wasinsfficiet, and the finGiant Forest of the giant sequoia National tark of Californiaees in the Americas for which we have a date. This slab of in the Giant Forest of Seuoia National Park of California stone is engraved in Mayan characters with a date which were thereby saved for the American people. means November 4, 291 ni. c. (Spinden Correlation). It One of the world's largest icefields and glacial systems antedates by 200 years anything heretofore dated in outside the polar regions was discovered in Alaska and America, and reveals a great center of early American Yukon by Bradford Washburn while exploring for The culture, previously unknown. Society and the Harvard Institute of Exploration, 1938. Copyright. 1947, by National Geographic Society, Washington, D. C. International Copyright secured. All rights reserved. Quedan reservados todos los derechos. Printed in I. S.A. Entered at the Post Office at Washington, I. C., as Second-Class Mail Matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in See. 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, authorized July 1, 1918. Cover design and names registered in United States Patent Office. Marea Registrada.