National Geographic : 1948 May
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY GEOGRAPHIC ADMINISTRATION BUILDING SIXTEENTH AND MSTREETS NORTHWEST, WASHINGTON 6,D.C. GILBERT GROSVENOR, President JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Vice-President ROBERT V. FLEMING, Treasurer THOMAS W.McKNEW, Secretary HERBERT A. POOLE, Assistant Treasurer VERNON H.BREWSTER, Assistant Secretary LYMAN J. BRIGGS, Chairman, Research Committee MELVIN M.PAYNE, Assistant Secretary ALEXANDER WETMORE, Vice-Chairman, Research KURTZ M.HANSON, Assistant Secretary Committee EXECUTIVE STAFF OF THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE GILBERT GROSVENOR, EDITOR JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Associate Editor J. R. HILDEBRAND Assistant Editor MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Assistant Editor JAMES M. DARLEY Chief Cartographer NEWMAN BUMSTEAD Research Cartographer CHARLES E. RIDDIFORD Cartographic Staff WELLMAN CHAMBERLIN Cartographic Staff RAYMOND W. WELCH Director of Advertising GILBERT G. LAGORCE Assistant Director ofAdvertising CHARLES EVANS HUGHES Formerly Chief Justice ofthe United States WALTER S. GIFFORD Chairman of theBoard American Telephone andTelegraph Co. WILLIAM V. PRATT Admiral U. S . Navy, Retired LYMAN J. BRIGGS Director National Bureau of Standards, Retired EMORY S. LAND Vice Admiral Construction Corps, U. S. Navy, Retired; President, Air TransportAssociation GEORGE R. PUTNAM Commissioner ofLighthouses, Retired L. O. COLBERT Rear Admiral, Director U.S.Coast and Geodetic Survey FRANKLIN L. FISHER Chief Illustrations Division, National Geographic Magazine FREDERICK SIMPICHI Assistant Editor LEO A.BORAH Editorial Staff FREDERICK G.VOSBURGH Editorial Staff LEONARD C.ROY Chief ofSchool Service WILLIAM H.NICHOLAS Editorial Staff F.BARROWS COLTON Editorial Staff INEZ B.RYAN Research Assistant GEORGE CROSSETTE Research Assistant BOARD OF TRUSTEES ROBERT V.FLEMING President and Chairman ofthe Board, Riggs National Bank H.H.ARNOLD General ofthe Army, Retired Formerly Commanding General U.S.Army Air Forces LEROY A.LINCOLN President Metropolitan Life Insurance Company JUAN T.TRIPPE President Pan American Airways DAVID FAIRCHILD Special Agricultural Explorer, U.S.Department ofAgriculture ALEXANDER WETMORE Secretary Smithsonian Institution GILBERT GROSVENOR Editor ofNational Geographic Magazine MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Assistant Editor, National Geographic Magazine FRANKLIN L.FISHER Chief Illustrations Division MAYNARD OWEN WILLIAMS Chief Foreign Editorial Staff W.ROBERT MOORE Foreign Editorial Staff LUIS MARDEN Foreign Editorial Staff EDWIN L.WISIIERD Chief Photographic Laboratory WALTER MEAYERS EDWARDS Illustrations Division KIP ROSS Illustrations Division MASON SUTHERLAND Editorial Staff JOIN J.PERSHING General oftheArmies ofThe United States CHARLES F.KETTERING President General Motors Research Corporation CHARLES G.DAWES Formerly Vice-President ofthe United States ELISIA IANSON Lawyer and Naturalist LLOYD B.WILSON Formerly Chairman ofthe Board Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Companies ERNEST E.NORRIS President Southern Railway System JOHN OLIVER LAGORCE Associate Editor oftheNational Geographic Magazine J.R.IIILI)EBRAND Assistant Editor, National Geographic Magazine ORGANIZED FOR "THE INCREASE AND DIFFUSION OF GEOGRAPHIC KNOWLEDGE" To carry out thepurposes forwhich itwas founded sixty years ago, the National Geographic Society pub lishes this Magazine monthly. Allreceipts areinvested in The Magazine itself orexpended directly topromote geographic knowledge. Articles and photographs aredesired. For material The Magazine uses, generous remuneration ismade. In addition to the editorial and photographic surveys constantly being made, The Society has sponsored more than 0oo scientificexpeditions, some ofwhich required years of field worktoachieve their objectives. The Society's notable expeditions have pushed back the historic horizons ofthe southwestern United States to a period nearly eight centuries before Columbus crossed the Atlantic. Bydating the ruins ofthe vast communal dwellings inthat region, The Society's re searches solved secrets that had puzzled historians for three hundred years. In Mexico, The Society and the Smithsonian Institu tion, January 16, 1939, discovered the oldest work ofman in the Americas forwhich wehave adate. This slab of stone is engraved inMayan characters with adate which means November 4, 291 B.c.(Spinden Correlation). It antedates by 200 years anything heretofore dated in America, and reveals agreat center ofearly American culture, previouslyunknown. OnNovember II,1935, inaflight sponsored jointly bythe National Geographic Society and theU.S.Army Air Corps, theworld's largest balloon, Explorer II,ascended tothe world altitude record of72,395 feet. Capt. Albert W.Stevens and Capt. Orvil A.Anderson took aloft inthe gondola nearly aton ofscientific instru ments, and obtained results ofextraordinary value. The National Geographic Society-U. S.Army AirForces Expedition, from acamp insouthern Brazil, pho tographed and observed the solar eclipse of1947. This was the seventh expedition ofThe Society toobserve atotal eclipse ofthe sun. The Society cooperated with Dr. William Beebe indeep-sea explorations offBermuda, during which aworld record depth of3,028 feet was attained. The Society granted $25,000, and inaddition $75,000 was given byindividual members, totheGovernment when the congressional appropriation forthepurpose was insufficient, and the finest ofthegiant sequoia trees intheGiant Forest ofSequoia National Park ofCalifornia were thereby saved forthe American people. One ofthe world's largest icefields and glacial systems outside thepolar regions was discovered inAlaska and Yukon byBradford Washburn while exploring forThe Society and theHarvard Institute ofExploration, 1938. Copyright, 1948. by National Geographic Society, Washington. D.C.International Copyright secured. Allrights reserved. Quedan reservados todos losderechos. Printed in U. S. A. Entered atthe Post Office atWashington, D.C.,asSecond-Class Mail Matter. Acceptance formailing atspecial rate ofpostage provided for in Sec. 1103, Act of October 3,1917, authorized July 1,1918. Cover design and names registered inUnited States Patent Office. Marca Registrada.