National Geographic : 1948 Jul
The National Geographic Magazine Staf' l'lhutograp1her Mlaymn d O wen Williams For a Student Jamboree They Play the Anatolian Equivalent of Turkey in the Straw This serious trio makes folk music inside a wide circle of dancing schoolmates at the Hasanoglan Village Institute. As future village schoolmasters, they need to keep up on rural dances. Through their farm and shop courses, hard-working pupils have made the Institute almost self-sufficient. Of its 70 trim buildings, 68 were built by students. The peasant from the region of Smyrna (izmir) explains to his son, "The olive garden shall be laid out by the grandfather, the fig garden by the father, and the vineyard by yourself." Through lowly toil the peasant has raised the prosperity of the country far above the level reached in the time of the sultans, when farmers were first of all soldiers and the coun try remained thinly settled and often unde veloped. Ataturk. founder of modern Turkey, indi cated in his declaration of 1923 which of the peasants' duties he valued more: "Sword and plow: of these two conquerors the first has always been overcome by the second." Two Presidents Have Worked for Peace Since the end of the War of Independence in 1923, two Presidents of the young Turkish Republic, Kemal Atatiirk and Ismet Inonii, both victorious generals, have striven to pro mote peace and the welfare of the peasantry. The Government of the Republic has stressed the education of the young peasants by building peasant schools in rural districts (page 62). In them future farmers are in structed in all the requirements of their calling in their provinces, and above all in the mod ernization of agriculture. I have often seen the young people at their work. Besides studying modern agricultural methods, they practice rural arts and handi crafts and keep alive traditional popular songs and dances. Whoever comes to Anatolia, whether to visit its provincial beauties and the numerous historic sites of classical, early Christian, Byzantine, Seljuk, and Ottoman times, or to study the improvements of modern Turkey, will learn to esteem and love these hardy, sunburned people, who are building a strong, self-reliant nation on a foundation of peace and unity.* * For additional articles on old and modern Tur key, see "NAnTIoNAL GEO;RAPHIIC I MGAZINxE Cumula tive Index, 1899-1947," especially the following: "East of Constantinople (Village Life in Anatolia)," by Melville Chater, May, 1923; "Looking in on the Everyday Life of New Turkey," April. 1932 ; "Turkey Goes to School." January. 1929, and "Turkish Re public Comes of Age," May, 1945, all by Maynard Owen Williams.