National Geographic : 1948 Jul
- . a43s u \ .Konya ,22,,, 18 D arbalr 1 Sc* 8435 B ur97 1176+ Mardin SAn J Perga. ,_ Adana Gaziantep .Urfa Coets+ Ermenek ata - Mosul CYP y' Mosul Crete , Antioc Rhdp I IR Canda eppo p IR andia Cyprus YRI S Y Mediterr a .nea.,n Sea. s I o0 0 200 Homs STATUTEMILES +3 527 I)rawn by HII.E . EastwoodI and lrvin . Allemanu Vast and Varied Anatolia Holds the Natural Riches that Make Young Turkey Strong Though mining and industry are increasing, Turkey's chief wealth is still the ancient Anatolian soil. Anatolia is the regional name for the western part of Asiatic Turkey. In west and south fertile plains and valleys yield rich bounties-citrus fruit, olives, figs, grapes, cotton, and tobacco. On the mountain-ringed semiarid steppes of central Anatolia toiling peasants fill the nation's breadbasket. Farther east, where only grass can grow, graze countless herds of sheep and goats. Important mineral deposits, especially coal and copper, lie beneath the soil; wide timber tracts clothe the northern mountains. sheep at the sacrifice festival in remembrance of the sacrifice which Abraham offered to God. In old times the rich Turk not only had his sheep slaughtered and roasted for the poor, but after the meal was over the guests re ceived "tooth money" as indemnity for the wearing out of their teeth during the meal. This, of course, was a tactful way of giving alms. On the way back to Ankara one of our companions, a professor in the agricultural institute there, explained to us that the joy fulness of such a celebration should not blind us to the fact that the peasants of central Anatolia lead a hard life. To give us an understanding of their ac complishment, he sketched briefly the climate and geography of Anatolia. Turkey, with an area of 300,000 square miles, lakes and swamps included, may be compared to a continent because of the great differences of topography and resulting varia tions in climate. Anatolia Bounded by Mountains and Sea The Black Sea coast of Anatolia suffers damp, enervating summers and cold winters with much rain and snow. The arid central plateau has extreme heat in summer and equally extreme cold in winter. The south and west coasts enjoy the typical Medi terranean climate of mild winters and summer heat, tempered by breezes from the sea. Anatolia is bordered on the north by the Black Sea, on the west by the Aeg on the south by the Mediterranean. In the north rise the Kuzey Daglan, in the south the Toros (Taurus Mountains). ean, and Anadolu Daglan Great Basin Holds a Salt Sea Middle Anatolia, where the capital, Ankara, is situated, is enclosed by huge ramparts of mountains. Since mountains also rise to the west and east, the middle Anatolian highland, 2,600 to 3,200 feet above the sea, merges slowly into an alpine country cut through by sinkings and breakings. The eastern highland plains, important for cattle breeding, lie 3,900 to 6,500 feet above the sea. Lying in the region south of Ankara and north of Konya in a great basin, and without possibility of flowing off, are numerous salt lakes, remnants of a young Miocene lake. The biggest is the Tuz Golii (Salt Sea). Its high concentration of salt gives rise to a salt industry. Comparatively few major rivers cross Ana tolia. In their valleys, however, agriculture thrives. The Kizil, the Halys of the ancient world, is one of the biggest. It was this river that King Croesus crossed when, misinterpreting the oracle at Delphi who told him his venture would result in the destruction of a great kingdom-he moved against Cyrus the Persian.* * See "Greece-the Birthplace of Science and Free Speech," by Richard Stillwell, NATIONAL GEOGRAPiIC MAGAZINE, March, 1944.