National Geographic : 1948 Jul
The National Geographic Magazine oil well in August, 1859. Today the wells of northwestern Pennsylvania produce only a small fraction of the national total, but their high-quality crude remains one of the finest bases for lubricating oils. Steel, pig iron, coal, stone, cement, coke these are potent names in an industrial age. Pennsylvania leads the Nation in the produc tion of them all. It is also a large producer of a long line of less spectacular items ranging from ice cream to pretzels and cigars to lace goods. Ninety-nine percent of the Nation's anthra cite comes from Pennsylvania mines, and nearly 25 percent of its bituminous. Penn sylvania produces 20 percent of this country's power output from all sources. During World War II the State's mills surpassed those of Germany proper in the production of ferrous metals. A Leader in Agriculture, Too Few persons think of Pennsylvania as a great agricultural State; yet its 9,240,000 acres of tilled farmland are more than are under cultivation, in normal times, in England and Wales, or in Ireland or Sweden. The State ranks third in farm income from dairy products and grows every important com mercial crop raised in the United States except cotton, citrus fruits, peanuts, and sugar cane. From dark, warm nurseries in Delaware and Chester Counties come more than half of the Nation's mushrooms. Lancaster County, where the frugal "Penn sylvania Dutch" have long pioneered in crop rotation, is among the ten richest farm coun ties in the country. The average size of these farms is among the smallest, but their produce is among the richest.* Philadelphia and Pittsburgh give Pennsyl vania the distinction of being the only State to possess two of our ten largest cities, but the majority of Pennsylvanians do not live in those cities. There are many small cities and towns in Pennsylvania, and the rural pop ulation is second largest among the States. Covering Pennsylvania is a network of rail road mileage larger than that of New York and New Jersey combined. Within its borders are principal installations of one of the Na tion's largest railroads, the Pennsylvania, and the oldest to be opened for public traffic, the Baltimore & Ohio. So many persons come annually to see Pennsylvania's wonders and historic shrines that tourist travel is the State's fourth busi ness! Some 87,000 miles of highways lead vaca- tionists to Pocono and Allegheny Mountain playgrounds. Pennsylvania has more than 250 lakes and at least 100 waterfalls. A sec tion of Lake Erie offers fresh-water bathing and fishing. A dozen caverns are open to the public. On 857,000 acres of State game lands, bought from the sale of hunting and fishing licenses, are hiking trails, campsites, and trout and bass streams. Wild Game Conserved As the result of a model conservation policy, Pennsylvanians today have more wild game than the Indians had. The annual bag, com puted in tons, includes deer, black bear, ruffed grouse, pheasants, quail, woodcock, wild tur keys, and a variety of migratory birds. The State Game Commission restocks about 7,500 miles of fishing streams every year. All of the 14 painters in the project have achieved national or international reputations. Five are native or adopted Pennsylvanians. One of these, Hobson Pittman of Upper Darby, is represented in the works reproduced in the NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE. The col lection as a whole includes eight paintings by Pittman. Other artistically gifted Pennsyl vanians who contributed their talents are George Biddle, Albert Gold, Franklin Wat kins, and Andrew Wyeth. The latter is the gifted son of the late N. C. Wyeth, who painted several murals for the library of the National Geographic Society. Paul Sample, native of New Hampshire and artist-in-residence at Dartmouth College, found his subjects in Philadelphia. He calls Pennsylvania's largest city one of the most "paintable" encountered during a career which has brought him thirteen important art awards. Discussing his School Children in Inde pendence Square (Plate I), Sample said: "Frankly, I was as interested in the school children as I was in the historical implications of the scene. "Here the children were being shown the significant landmark in Independence Square. These kids, in common with all the other kids I have known, were only making a pretense of listening to the remarks of their teacher about the statue. They were squirming, gig gling, and tickling one another. A close ob server of the painting will note that I have not overlooked this amusing characteristic of a group of children." Sample's fondness for public places where people gather for relaxation led to his Ritten house Square (Plate X). * See "In the Pennsylvania Dutch Country," by Elmer C. Stauffer, NATIONAL GEOGRAPIIIC MAGAZINE, July, 1941.