National Geographic : 1948 Sep
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY GEOGRAPHIC ADMINISTRATION BUILDING SIXTEENTH AND M STREETS NORTHWEST, WASHINGTON 6, D. C. GILBERT GROSV'NOR, President ROBERT V. FLEMING., Treasurer IIIERBERT A. POOLE, Assistant Treasurer LYMAN J. BRIG(GS, Chairman, Research Committee ALEXANDER \VETMORE, Vice-Clairmnan, Research Committee JOHN OLIVER LA (OR('I, Vice-President TIHOMAS \V. McKNEI'XV, Secretary VERNON II. BREWSTER, Assistant Secretary MELVIN M. PAYNE, Assistant Secretary KURTZ M. I1ANSON, Assistant Secretary EXECUTIVE STAFF OF TIIE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE GILBERT GROSVENOR, EDITOR JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Associate Editor J. R. IIILDEBRANI) Assistant Editor MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Assistant Editor JAMES M. DARIEY Chief C'artographler NEI\V MAN BItMSTEAD Research Cartographer CHIAREIS E. RI)I)IFORD Cartographic Staff WVIELLMAN CIIAM BERLIN Cartographic Staff RAYMONI)D W\V.W\VELCH Director of Advertising GILBERT G(. LA G(;ORCE AssistantD)irector of Advertising CIIARIIES EVANS II'GHES FIormerly Clief Justice of tihe I' ited States WALI'TER S. (GIFFORI) Chairman of t he Board American Telephone and Telegraph Co. \VIL.I AM V. PR .AITT A.lhniral I. S . Navy, Retired LV'MAN J. BRIGGS l)irector National Bureau of Standards, Retired EMORV S. LANI) Vice Admliral Construction Corps, Il.S. Navy, Retired; President, Air I transport Association (;GEOR(;GE R. PI'TNAM Conllisisioner of Lighthouses, Retired L. O. COLBERT Rear Admiral, Director U. S. Coast and ,Geodetic Survey FRANKLIN L.. FISHER Chief Illustrations Division, National Geographic Magazine FREI)ERICK SIMPICII Assistant Editor LEO A. BORAII Editorial Staff FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH Editorial Staff LEONARD C. ROY Chief of School Service WILLIAM H1. NICIIOLAS Editorial Staff F. BARROWS COLTON Editorial Staff INEZ B. RVAN Research Assistant (GEORGE CROSSETITE Research Assistant BOARD OF TRUSTEES ROBERT V. FLEMING President and Cihairman of tlhe Board, Riggs National Bank II. II.ARNOL) General of the Army, Retired Formerly Commanding General I:. S. Army Air Forces LEROV A. LINCOLN President Metropolitan Life Insurance Compally JIl'AN T. TRIPPE President Pan American Airways DAVID FAIRCIIILD) Special Agricultural Explorer. U. S . D)epartrent of Agriculture ALEXANDER \VETM'MORE Secretary Smithsonian Institution GI IBERT (GROSVENOR Editor of National Geographic Magazine MEILVILLE BELL. GROSVElNOR( Assistant lEditor, National Geographic Magazine FRANKLIN 1.. FISHER Chief Illustrations I)ivision MAVNARD O\VIWEN \VIILLIAMS Chief Foreign Editorial Staff \V. ROBERT MOOlRE Foreign Edlitorial Staff LtIS MARI)EN Foreign Editorial Staff ElI)\VIN L. \WISHIERD) Chief Photographic Laloratory WALTER MlEV I'ERS El1)\VARI)S Illustrations I )ivision KIP ROSS Illustrations Division MASON St HIIERLANI) Editorial Staff JOIN J. PIRSIIING General of t1le .Armiesof hlie Inited States CHARLES F. KEIlTTIERING President General Motors Research Corporation CHIIARLES (;. I\VIES Formerly Vice President of the I united States ELS1 IA II.XNSON Lawyer anil Natiralist LLOI)D I. WIILSON Formerly Chairiman of the Board Chesapeake allnd PotOmlac Telephone (Conlpanies ERNEST E1:.NORRIS President Southern Railway Systemn JOIIN OLIVIER IA (GORCE Associate Editor of the National Geographic Xlagazine J. R. 1111)DEBRAND Assistant Editor. National Geographic Magazine ORGANIZED FOR "THE INCREASE AND DIFFUSION OF GEOGRAPHIC KNOWLEDGE" To carry out the purposes for which it was founded sixty years ago, the National Geograplhic Society pub lishes this Magazine monthly. All receipts are invested in lThe Magazine itself or expended directly to promote geographic knowledge. Articles and photographs are desired. For material Tile Magazine uses, generous remunleration is made. In addition to the editorial and photographic surveys constantly being made, The Society has sponsored more than too scientific expeditions, some of which required years of field work to achieve their objectives. The Society's notable expeditions have pushed back the historic horizons of tilesouthwestern IUnited States to a period nearly eight centuries before Columbus crossed the Atlantic. By dating the ruins of the vast colmmunal dwellings in that region, I'heSociety's re searches solved secrets that had puzzled historians for threehundred years. In Mexico, The Society and the Smithsonian Institu till, January 16, 1939, discovered the oldest work of man in the Americas for whliici we have a date. This slab of stone is engraved in Mayan characters with a date which means November 4, 20r n. c . (Spinden Correlation). It antedates bv 200o ears anything heretofore dated in America, and reveals a great center of early American culture, pre'vioslly unknown. On November II, 1935, in a flight sponsored jointly by the National Geographic Society and the I'.S . Arnmy Air Corps, the world's largest balloon. I . xpfluer II, as cended to tile world altitude record of 72.395 feet. Capt. Albert \W. Stevens and (Capt. Orvil .A. Anderson took aloft in the gondola nearly a ton of scientific instru ments, and obtained results of extraordinary value. The National Geographic Societvy-' . S. Army Air Forces Expedition, from a camp in southern Brazil, pho tographed and observed the solar eclipse of 1947. This was the seventh expedition of Tlie Society to observe a total eclipse of the sun. The Society cooperated with Dr. William Beebe in deep-sea explorations off Bermuda. during whllicl a world record depth of 3,028 feet was attained. The Society granted S25,ooo, and in addition 75,00oo0 was given by individual members, to the Government when tlie congressional appropriation for tle purpose was insufficient, and thie finest of thie giant sequo()ia trees in the Giant Forest of Sequoia National Park of California were tlhereby saved for tlie Am.\ericanll people. One of the world's largest icefields and glacial systems outside the polar regions was discovered in Alaska and Yukon by Bradford \Vashburn while exploring for The Society ande e Hararrd Institute of Exploration, 1938. C copyright, 1948. by Nato.l Geograp 11hic Soeiety, Washington, D. C. International Copyrmght secured. All rights reserved. Quedan resrvdos tods lossdrehos.. l'rinted in tr. S. A . F:ntered at the tPos tflire artWash ton. I). 1. .as Serond-('lass Mail Matter. Arcrreptnn, for ma;linr at s,reial rirre of ort"age provided for in Sec'. 1103. Act of Otober 3. 1917, authorized July 1, 1918. ('over design and names registered in United iStates P'atent ()ttie. Mari(a R'egistradal.