National Geographic : 1948 Oct
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY GEOGRAPHIC ADMINISTRATION BUILDING SIXTEENTH AND MSTREETS NORTHWEST. WASHINGTON 6,D.C. GILBERT GROSVENOR, President ROBERT V. FLEMING, Treasurer HERBERT A. POOLE, Assistant Treasurer LYMAN J. BRIGGS, Chairman, Research Committee ALEXANDER WETMORE, Vice-Chairman, Research Committee JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Vice-President THOMAS W. McKNEW, Secretary VERNON II. BREWSTER, Assistant Secretary MELVIN M. PAYNE, Assistant Secretary KURTZ M. HANSON, Assistant Secretary EXECUTIVE STAFF OF THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE GILBERT GROSVENOR, EDITOR JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Associate Editor J. R. HILDEBRAND Assistant Editor MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Assistant Editor JAMES M. DARLEY Chief Cartographer NEWMAN BUMSTEAD Research Cartographer CHARLES E. RIDDIFORD Cartographic Staff WELLMAN CHAMBERLIN Cartographic Staff RAYMOND W.WELCH Director of Advertising GILBERT G. LA GORCE Assistant Director ofAdvertising CHARLES EVANS HUGHES Formerly ChiefJustice ofthe United States WALTER S. GIFFORD Chairman of the Board American Telephone and Telegraph Co. WILLIAM V. PRATT Admiral U. S .Navy, Retired LYMAN J. BRIGGS Director National Bureau of Standards, Retired EMORY S. LAND Vice Admiral Construction Corps, U. S . Navy,Retired; President, Air Transport Association GEORGE R. PUTNAM CommissionerofLighthouses, Retired L. O. COLBERT Rear Admiral,Director U. S.Coast and GeodeticSurvey FRANKLIN L.FISHER Chief Illustrations Division, National Geographic Magazine FREDERICK SIMPICH Assistant Editor LEO A.BORAH Editorial Staff FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH Editorial Staff LEONARD C.ROY Chief ofSchool Service WILLIAM H. NICHOLAS Editorial Staff F.BARROWS COLTON Editorial Staff INEZ B.RYAN Research Assistant GEORGE CROSSETTE Research Assistant BOARD OF TRUSTEES ROBERT V. FLEMING President and Chairman ofthe Board, Riggs National Bank I.H. ARNOLD General ofthe Army, Retired Formerly Commanding General U.S.Army Air Forces LEROY A.LINCOLN President Metropolitan Life Insurance Company JUAN T.TRIPPE President Pan American Airways DAVID FAIRCHILD Special Agricultural Explorer, U. S.Department ofAgriculture ALEXANDER WETMORE Secretary Smithsonian Institution GILBERT GROSVENOR Editor ofNational Geographic Magazine MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Assistant Editor, National Geographic Magazine FRANKLIN L.FISHER Chief Illustrations Division MAYNARD OWEN WILLIAMS Chief Foreign Editorial Staff W. ROBERT MOORE Foreign Editorial Staff LUIS MARDEN Foreign Editorial Staff EDWIN L.WISIERD Chief Photographic Laboratory WALTER MEAYERS EDWARDS Illustrations Division KIP ROSS Illustrations Division MASON SUTHERLAND Editorial Staff JOHN J.PERSHING General ofthe Armies ofThe United States CHARLES F.KETTERING President General Motors Research Corporation CHARLES G. DAWES Formerly Vice-President ofthe IUnited States ELISHA HANSON Lawyer and Naturalist LLOYD B.WILSON Formerly Chairman ofthe Board Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Companies ERNEST E.NORRIS President Southern Railway System JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE Associate Editor ofthe National Geographic Magazine J.R.IIILDEBRAND Assistant Editor, National Geographic Magazine ORGANIZED FOR "THE INCREASE AND DIFFUSION OF GEOGRAPHIC KNOWLEDGE" To carry out the purposes for which itwas founded sixty years ago,the National Geographic Society pub lishes this Magazine monthly. All receipts are invested in The Magazineitself or expended directly topromote geographic knowledge. Articles and photographs are desired. For material The Magazine uses, generous remuneration ismade. In addition tothe editorial and photographic surveys constantly beingmade, The Society has sponsored more than loo scientific expeditions, some of which required years of field work to achieve their objectives. The Society'snotable expeditions have pushed back the historic horizons of the southwestern United States to a period nearly eight centuries before Columbus crossed the Atlantic. By dating the ruins ofthe vast communal dwellings inthat region, The Society's re searches solved secrets that had puzzled historians for three hundred years. In Mexico, The Society and the Smithsonian Institu tion, January 16,1939, discovered the oldest work of man in the Americas for which we have adate. This slab of stone is engravedinMayan characters with adate which means November4,291 B.c.(Spinden Correlation). It antedates by 200years anything heretofore dated in America, and reveals agreat center of early American culture, previously unknown. On November II,1935, inaflight sponsored jointly by the National Geographic Society and the U.S.Army Air Corps, the world's largest balloon, Explorer II,as cended tothe world altitude record of72,395 feet. Capt. Albert W. Stevens and Capt. Orvil A.Anderson took aloft inthe gondola nearly aton of scientific instru ments, and obtained results of extraordinary value. The National Geographic Society-U. S.Army Air Forces Expedition, from acamp insouthern Brazil, pho tographed and observed the solar eclipse of 1947. This was the seventh expedition ofThe Society to observe atotal eclipse ofthe sun. The Society cooperated with Dr. William Beebe indeep-sea explorations off Bermuda, during which aworld record depth of3,028 feet was attained. The Society granted $25,ooo, and inaddition $75,000 was given by individual members, to the Government when the congressional appropriation for the purpose was insufficient, and the finest ofthe giant sequoia trees inthe Giant Forest ofSequoia National Park ofCalifornia were thereby saved for the American people. One ofthe world's largest icefields and glacial systems outside the polar regions was discovered inAlaska and Yukon by Bradford Washburn while exploring for The Society and the Harvard Institute ofExploration, 1938. Copyright, 1948. by NationalGeographic Society. Washington. D.C.International Copyright secured. All rights reserved. Quedan reservados todos los derechos. Printed in U. S. A. Entered at the Post Office atWashington. D.C., asSecond-Class Mail Matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate ofpostage provided for in Sec. 1103. Act ofOctober 3,1917. authorized July 1.1918. Cover design and names registered inUnited States Patent Office. Marca Registrada.