National Geographic : 1949 Jan
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY GEOGRAPHIC ADMINISTRATION BUILDING SIXTEENTH AND M STREETS NORTHWEST, WASHINGTON 6, D. C. GILBERT GROSVENOR, President ROBERT V. FLEMING, Treasurer HERBERT A. POOLE, Assistant Treasurer LYMAN J. BRIGGS, Chairman, Research Committee ALEXANDER WETMORE, Vice-Chairman, Research Committee JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Vice-President THOMAS W. McKNEW, Secretary VERNON II. BREWSTER, Assistant Secretary MELVIN M. PAYNE, Assistant Secretary KURTZ M. HANSON, Assistant Secretary EXECUTIVE STAFF OF THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE GILBERT GROSVENOR, EDITOR JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Associate Editor J. R. IIILDEBRAND Assistant Editor MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Assistant Editor JAMES M. IARLEY Chief Cartographer NEWMAN BUMSTEAD Research Cartographer CHARLES E. RII)DDIFORD Cartographic Staff WELLMAN ClIAMBERLIN Cartographic Staff RAYMOND W. WELCH Director of Advertising GILBERT G. LA (ORCE Assistant Director of Advertising WALTER S. GIFFORD) Chairman of the Board American Telephone and Telegraph Co. WILLIAM V. PRATT Admiral U. S. Navy, Retired LYMAN J. BRIGGS Director National Bureau of Standards. Retired EMORY S. LAND Vice Admiral Construction Corps, i. S. Navy, Retired; President, Air Transport Association GEORGE R. PUTNAM Conmissioner of Lighthouses, Retired L. O . COLBERT Rear Admiral, Director U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey FRANKLIN L. FISHER Chief Illustrations Division, National Geographic Magazine FREDERICK SIMPICII Assistant Editor LEO A. BORAH Editorial Staff FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH Editorial Staff LEONARD C. ROY Chief of School Service WILLIAM II. NICHOLAS Editorial Staff F. BARROWS COLTON Editorial Staff INEZ B. RYAN Research Assistant GEORGE CROSSETTE Research Assistant BOARD OF TRUSTEES ROBERT V. FLEMING President and Chairman of the Board, Riggs National Bank CHARLES F. KETTERING President General Motors Research Corporation LEROY A. LINCOLN President Metropolitan Life Insurance Company JUAN T. TRIPPE President Pan American Airways DAVID FAIRCHILD Special Agricultural Explorer, U. S. Department of Agriculture ALEXANDER WETMORE Secretary Smithsonian Institution GILBERT GROSVENOR Editor of National Geographic Magazine MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Assistant Editor, National Geographic Magazine FRANKLIN L. FISHER Chief Illustrations Division MAYNARD OWEN W\ILLIAMS Chief Foreign Editorial Staff W. ROBERT M)()RE Foreign Editorial Staff LIIS MARDEN Foreign Editorial Staff EDWIN L. WISIIERD Chief Photographic Laboratory WALTER ME.AYERS EI)WARIS Illustrations Division KIP ROSS Illustrations Division MASON SUTIHERLAND Editorial Staff II. II. ARNOLD General of the Army. Retired Formerly Commanding General U. S. Army Air Forces CHARLES (;. I)AWES Formerly Vice- President of the United States ELISIIA IIANSON Lawyer and Naturalist LLOYD B. WIL.SON Formerly Chairman of the Board Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Companies ERNEST E. NORRIS President Southern Railway System JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE Associate Editor of the National Geographic Magazine J. R. IIILIDBRAND Assistant Editor, National Geographic Magazine ORGANIZED FOR "THE INCREASE AND DIFFUSION OF GEOGRAPHIC KNOWLEDGE" To carry out the purposes for which it was founded On November II, 1935, in a flight sponsored jointly sixty-one years ago, the National Geographic Society pub- by the National Geographic Society and the U. S. Army lishes this Magazine monthly. All receipts are invested Air Corps, the world's largest balloon, Explorer II, as in The Magazine itself or expended directly to promote cended to the world altitude record of 72.395 feet. geographic knowledge. Capt. Albert W. Stevens and Capt. Orvil A. Anderson Articles and photographs are desired. For material took aloft in the gondola nearly a ton of scientific instru The Magazine uses, generous remuneration is made. ments, and obtained results of extraordinary value. In addition to the editorial and photographic surveys The National Geographic Society-U . S. Army Air constantly being made, The Society has sponsored more Forces Expedition, from a camp in southern Brazil, pho than oo00scientific expeditions, some of which required tographed and observed the solar eclipse of 1947. This years of field work to achieve their objectives, was the seventh expedition of The Society to observe a The Society's notable expeditions have pushed back total eclipse of the sun. the historic horizons of the southwestern United States The Society cooperated with Dr. William Beebe in to a period early eight centuries before Columbus deep-sea explorations off Bermuda, during which a world crossed the Atlantic. By dating the ruins of the vast record depth of 3,028 feet was attained. communal dwellings in that region, The Society's re searches solved secrets that had puzzled historians for The Society granted $25,000, and in addition $75,000 three hundred years, was given by individual members, to the Government In Mexico, The Society and the Smithsonian Institu- when the congressional appropriation for the purpose tion, January 16, 1939, discovered the oldest work of man was insufficient, and the finest of the giant sequoia trees in the Americas for which we have a date. This slab of in the Giant Forest of Sequoia National Park of California stone is engraved in Mayan characters with a date which were thereby saved for the American people. means November 4, 291 B. c . (Spinden Correlation). It One of the world's largest icefields and glacial systems antedates by 200 years anything heretofore dated in outside the polar regions was discovered in Alaska and America, and reveals a great center of early American Yukon by Bradford Washburn while exploring for The culture, previously unknown. Society and the Harvard Institute of Exploration, 1938. Copyright, 1948, by National Geographic Society, Washington, D. C. International Copyright secured. All rights reserved. Quedan reservados todos los derechos. Printed in U. S. A. Entered at the Post Office at Washington, D. C., as Second-Class Mail Matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Sec. 1103. Act of October 3, 1917, authorized July 1, 1918. Cover design and names registered in United States Patent Office. Marca Registrada.