National Geographic : 1949 Apr
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY GEOGRAPHIC ADMINISTRATION BUILDING SIXTEENTH AND M STREETS NORTHWEST. WASHINGTON 6, D. C. GILBERT GROSVENOR, President ROBERT V. FLEMING, Treasurer HERBERT A. POOLE, Assistant Treasurer LYMAN J. BRIGGS, Chairman, Research Committee ALEXANDER WETMORE, Vice-Chairman, Research Committee JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE. Vice-President THOMAS W. McKNEW, Secretary VERNON II. BREWSTER, Assistant Secretary MELVIN M. PAYNE, Assistant Secretary KURTZ M. HANSON, Assistant Secretary EXECUTIVE STAFF OF TIHE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE GILBERT GROSVENOR, EDITOR JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Associate Editor J. R. HILDEBRAND Assistant Editor MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Assistant Editor JAMES M. DARLEV Chief Cartographer NEWMAN BITMSTEAD Research Cartographer CHARLES E. RIDDIFORD Cartographic Staff WELLMAN CIAMBERLIN Cartographic Staff RAYMOND W. WELCII Director of Advertising GILBERT G. LA GORCE Assistant Director of Advertising WALTER S. GIFFORI) Chairman of the Board American Telephone and Telegraph Co. WILLIAM V. PRATT Admiral U. S. Navy, Retired LYMAN J. BRIGGS Director National Bureau of Standards, Retired EMORY S. LAND Vice Admiral Construction Corps, U. S. Navy, Retired; President, Air Transport Association GEORGE R. PUTNAM Commissioner of Lighthouses, Retired L. O . COLBERT Rear Admiral, Iirector U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey FRANKLIN L. FISHER Chief Illustrations Division, National Geographic Magazine FREDERICK SIMPICH Assistant Editor LEO A. BORAH Editorial Staff FREDERICK G. VOSBURGII Editorial Staff LEONARD C. ROY Chief of School Service WILLIAM II. NICHOLAS Editorial Staff F. BARROWS COLTON Editorial Staff INEZ B. RYAN Research Assistant GEORGE CROSSETTE Research Assistant BOARD OF TRUSTEES ROBERT V. FLEMING President and Chairman of the Board, Riggs National Bank CHARLES F. KETTERING President General Motors Research Corporation LEROY A. LINCOLN President Metropolitan Life Insurance Company JUAN T. TRIPPE President Pan American Airways DAVID FAIRCHILD Special Agricultural Explorer. U . S. Department of Agriculture ALEXANDER WETMORE Secretary Smithsonian Institution GILBERT GROSVENOR Editor of National Geographic Magazine MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Assistant Editor, National Geographic Magazine FRANKLIN L. FISHER Chief Illustrations Iivision MAYNARD OWEN WILLIAMS Chief Foreign Editorial Staff W. ROBERT MOORE Foreign Editorial Staff LIIS MAR)EN Foreign Editorial Staff EDWIN L. WISHERD Chief Photographic Laboratory WALTER MEAVERS EDWARI)S Illustrations Division KIP ROSS Illustrations Iivision MASON SUTTHERLANI Editorial Staff II. II . ARNOLD General of the Army, Retired Formerly Commanding General U. S. Armny Air Forces CHARLES G. IAWES Formerly Vice-President of the United States ELISIIA IANSON Lawyer and Naturalist LLOYD B. WILSON Formerly Chairman of the Board Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Companies ERNEST E. NORRIS President Southern Railway System JOHN OLIVER IA GORCE Associate Editor of the National Geographic Magazine J. R. HILDEBRAND Assistant Editor, National Geographic Magazine ORGANIZED FOR "THE INCREASE AND DIFFUSION OF GEOGRAPHIC KNOWLEDGE" To carry out the purposes for which it was founded sixty-one years ago, the National Geographic Society pub lishes this Magazine monthly. All receipts are invested in The Magazine itself or expended directly to promote geographic knowledge. Articles and photographs are desired. For material The Magazine uses, generous remuneration is made. In addition to the editorial and photographic surveys constantly being made, The Society has sponsored more than Ioo scientific expeditions, some of which required years of field work to achieve their objectives. The Society's notable expeditions have pushed back the historic horizons of the southwestern United States to a period nearly eight centuries before Columbus crossed the Atlantic. By dating the ruins of the vast communal dwellings in that region, The Society's re searches solved secrets that had puzzled historians for three hundred years. In Mexico, The Society and the Smithsonian Institu tion, January 16, 1939, discovered the oldest work of man in the Americas for which we have a date. This slab of stone is engraved in Mayan characters with a date which means November 4, 291 B. c. (Spinden Correlation). It antedates by 200 years anything heretofore dated in America, and reveals a great center of early American culture, previously unknown. On November 11, 1935, in a flight sponsored jointly by the National Geographic Society and the U. S. Army Air Corps, the world's largest balloon, Explorer II, as cended to the world altitude record of 72,395 feet. Capt. Albert W. Stevens and Capt. Orvil A. Anderson took aloft in the gondola nearly a ton of scientific instru ments, and obtained results of extraordinary value. The National Geographic Society-U . S. Army Air Forces Expedition, from a camp in southern Brazil, pho tographed and observed the solar eclipse of 1947. This was the seventh expedition of The Society to observe a total eclipse of the sun. The Society cooperated with Dr. William Beebe in deep-sea explorations off Bermuda, during which a world record depth of 3,028 feet was attained. The Society granted $25,000o and in addition $75,ooo was given by individual members, to the Government when the congressional appropriation for the purpose was insufficient, and the finest of tlie giant sequoia trees in the Giant Forest of Sequoia National Park of California were thereby saved for the American people. One of the world's largest icefields and glacial systems outside tle polar regions was discovered in Alaska and Yukon by Bradford Washburn while exploriilg for The Society and the Harvard Institute of Exploration, 1938. Copyright. 1949. by National Geographic Society, Washington, D. C. International Copyright secured. All rights reserved. Quedan reservados todos los derechos. Printed in U. S . A. Entered at the Post Office at Washington. D. C. as Second Class Mail Matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Sec. 1103. Act of October 3. 1917, authorized July 1. 1918. Cover design and names registered in United States Patent Office. Marca Registrada.