National Geographic : 1949 Jul
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY GEOGRAPHIC ADMINISTRATION BUILDING SIXTEENTH AND M STREETS NORTHWEST. WASHINGTON 6, D. C. GILBERT GROSVENOR, President ROBERT V. FLEMING, Treasurer IIERBERT A. POOLE, Assistant Treasurer LYMAN J. BRIGGS, Chairman, Research Committee ALEXANDER WETMORE, Vice-Chairman, Research Committee JOIN OLIVER LA GORCE,( Vice-President THOMAS \V. Mc KNEW., Secretary VERNON II. BREWSTER, Assistant Secretary MELVIN M. PAVNE, Assistant Secretary KURTZ M. HANSON, Assistant Secretary EXECUTIVE STAFF OF THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE GILBERT GROSVENOR, EDITOR JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Associate Editor J. R. IILDEBRAND Assistant Editor MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Assistant Editor JAMES M. DARI .EV Chief Cartographer NE\VMAN BI'MSTEAD Research Cartographer CHIIARLES E. RI)DDIFORD Cartographic Staff WELLMAN CHAMBERLIN Cartogralphic Staff RAYMONI) W. WEILCHI Director of Advertising GILBERT G. LA GORCE Assistant Director of Advertising GEORGE C. MARSIIALL General of the Army. Retired Formerly Secretary of State \VALIER 5. G;IFFORI) Chairman of tlie Board American ITelephone and T'elegralph Co. \VWILLI AM V. PRATT Admiral . S. Navy. Retired LYMAN J. BRIGGS I)ir actor National itBreau of Standards. Retired EI.LISI\ II.\XSON L.awy r and Nat ralist EMORV S. LANl) Vice Admiral Construction Corps, I'. S. Navy. Retired; President. Air Transport Association GEORGE R. PI'TNAMI Commissioner of Lighthouses, Retired FRANKI.IN L. FISIIER Chief Illustrations D)ivision, National Geographic Magazine FREDERICK SIMPICII Assistant Editor LIEO()A. BORAII Editorial Staff FREDERICK G. VOSBI'RGH Editorial Staff LEONARD C. ROY Chief of School Service WVILLIAM II. NICIOLAS Editorial Staff F. BARROWS COLTON Editorial Staff INEZ B. RYAN Research Assistant (EORGE( CROSSETTE Research Assistant WILLIAM A. KINNEY Chief News Bulletin Service BOARD OF TRUSTEES ROBERT V. FLEMING President and Chairman of tlhe Board, Riggs National Bank CIIlARLES F. KE TTERING President General Motors Research Corporation LEROY A. LINCOLN President Metropolitan Life Insurance (Company JI'AN T. TRIPPE President Pan American Airways DAVID) FAIRClIIL) Special Agricultural Explorer, I'. S. Department of Agriculture AEIAXAN1DER WETMORE Secretary Smiithsonian Institution GILBERT T GROSVENOR Editor of National Geographic Magazine MELVIILLE BELL GROSVENOR Assistant Editor. National Geographic Magazine FRANKLIN IL. FISIIER Clief Illustrations Division MAYNARI) O\WEN \VILLIAMS Chief Foreign lEditorial Staff \V. ROBERT MOORE Foreign Editorial Staff I'IS MARDEN Foreign Editorial Staff EDWIN L. WISIIERD Chief Photographic Laboratory WAITER MEAYERS EDI)ARI)S Illustrations Division KIP ROSS Illustrations Division MASON SITTIIERLANI) Editorial Staff II. II . ARNOLD General of the Air IForce. Retired CHIIARLES G. DAWES Formerly Vice- P'resident of thleI'ited Staltes LLOYD B. WVILSON Formerly Chairman of the Board (hsapeakeu and PotomaC Telephone (Comanies 1,. 0. COLBEIRT Rear Admiral. Director I .S . Coast and (Geodetic Survey ERNEST I- . NORRIS President Southern Railway System JOIIN OLIVER IA GORE Associate Editor of the National Geographic Magazine J. R. ttILI)1E'IRAND Assistant Editor, National Geographic Magazine TIIOMAS W. McKN E\V Secretary, National Geographic Society ORGANIZED FOR "THE INCREASE AND DIFFUSION OF GEOGRAPHIC KNOWLEDGE" To carry out the purposes for which it was founded sixty-one years ago. the National Geographic Society pub lishes this Magazine monthly. All receipts are invested in The Magazine itself or expended directly to promote geographic knowledge. Articles and photographs are desired. For material Tile Magazineagaiuses, generous remuntleration is made. In addition to the editorial and photographic surveys constantly being made. The Society has sponsored more than too scientific expeditions, some of which required years of field work to achieve theirobjectives. The Society's notable expeditions have pushed back the historic horizons of the southwestern I nited States to a period nearly eiglit ctenturies before Columbus crossed til Atlantic. By dating tie ruins of the vast communal dwellings in that region, The Society's re searches solved secrets that had puzzled historians for three hundred years. In Mexico, The Society and the Smithsonian Institu tion, January 16, 1930. discovered the oldest work of man in tlh: Americas for which we have a date. This slab of stone is engraved in Mayan characters with a date which means November 4, 201 H. c. (Spinden Correlation). It antedates by 200 years anything heretofore dated in America, and reveals a great center of early American culture, previously unknown. On November II, 1935. in a flight sponsored jointly by the National Geographic Society and the '. S. Army Air Corps, the world's largest balloon, Explorer II. as cended to the world altitude record of 72.305 feet. Capt. Albert W. Stevens and Capt. Orvil A. Anderson took aloft in tle gondola nearly a ton of scientific instru ments, and obtained results of extraordinary value. The National Geographic Society-U. S . Army Air Forces Expedition, from a camp in southern Brazil, pho tographed and observed tile solar eclipse of 1947. This was the seventh expedition of The Society to observe a total eclipse of the sun. The Society cooperated with Dr. William Beebe in deep-sea explorations off Bermuda, during which a world record depth of 3,028 feet was attained. The Society granted $25.00ooo and in addition $75.000 was given by individual members, to tile Government when tie congressional appIropriation for tile purpose was insufficient, and the finest of the giant sequoall( trees in thle Giant Forest of Sequoia National Park of California were thereby saved for the American people. One of the world's largest icefields and glacial systems outside the polar regions was discovered in Alaska and Yukon by Bradford Washburn wlile exploring for The Society and the Iarvard Institute of Exploration, 1938. (,pyright. 1949. by National Geogr:aphfic Society, Washington, D. (C. International Copyright secured. All rights reserved. Ouedan reservados todus lox derechso l'ritel inIi..A.. entered itthe Post ()Ofice at Washington, I). C., as Second Class Mail Matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage prtlovidd fur ill e e. 1 113:,Act of O()ctober 3, 1917. ialluthorlized.July 1. 1918. (Cover design and names registered in United States Patent Olice. Marea Registrada.