National Geographic : 1949 Oct
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY GEOGRAPHIC ADMINISTRATION BUILDING SIXTEENTH AND M STREETS NORTHWEST. WASHINGTON 6, D. C. GILBERT GROSVENOR, President ROBERT V. FLEMING, Treasurer HERBERT A. POOLE, Assistant Treasurer LYMAN J. BRIGGS, Chairman, Research Committee ALEXANDER WETMORE, Vice-Chairman, Research Committee JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Vice-President THOMAS W. McKNEW, Secretary VERNON II. BREWSTER, Assistant Secretary MELVIN M. PAYNE, Assistant Secretary KURTZ M. HANSON, Assistant Secretary EXECUTIVE STAFF OF THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE GILBERT GROSVENOR, EDITOR JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Associate Editor J. R. IIILDEBRAND Assistant Editor MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Assistant Editor JAMES M. DARLEY Chief Cartographer NEWMAN BIMSTEAD Research Cartographer CHARLES E. RIDDIFORD Cartographic Staff WELLMAN CHAMBERLIN Cartograplic Staff RAYMOND W. WELCHI Director of Advertising GILBERT G. LA GORCE Assistant Director of Advertising GEORGE C. MARSIIHALL General of the Army. Retired Formerly Secretary of State WAITERR S. 1IFORI) chairmann of tlie Board American Telephone and Telegraph Co. WILLIAM V. PRAT ' Admiral I . S. Navy, Retired LYMAN J. BRIGGS Director National Bureau of Standards, Retired ELISIIA IIANSON Lawyer and Naturalist EMORY S. LAND Vice Admiral Construction Corps, U. S. Navy, Retired; President, Air Transport Association GEORGE R. PUTNAM Commissioner of lighthouses, Retired FRANKLIN L. FISHER Chief Illustrations Division, National Geographic Magazine FREDERICK SIMPICII Assistant Editor LEO A. BORA.\ Editorial Staff FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH Editorial Staff LEONARD C. RO Chief of School Service WILLIAM II. NICHOLAS Editorial Staff F. BARROWS COLTON Editorial Staff INEZ B. RYAN Research Assistant GEORGE CROSSETTE Research Assistant WILIIAM A. KINNEY Chief News Bulletin Service BOARD OF TRUSTEES ROBERT V. FLEMING President and Chairman of the Board, Riggs National Bank CIIARIES F. KETTERING President General IMotors Research Corporation IEROV A. LIN('OLN President Metropolitan Life Insurance Companyla JUAN T. TRIPPE President Pan American Airways I)AVII) FAIRCI1ILD Special Agricultural Explorer. U. S. Department of Agriculture ALEXANDER WETMORE Secretary Smithsonian Institution GI LBERT GROSVENOR Editor of National Geographic Magazine MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Assistant Editor, National Geographic Magazine FRANKLIN L. FISHER Chief Illustrations Division MAYNARI) OWEN WILIIAMS Chief Foreign Editorial Staff WV. ROBE'RT MOORE Foreign Editorial Staff LIS MARDEN Foreign Editorial Staff EDWIN L. W\ISIIERD Chief Photographic Laboratory WALTER MEAYERS E)DWARDS Illustrations Division KIP ROSS Illustrations Division MASON SUTIIERLAND Editorial Staff II. IH. ARNOLD General of the Air Force. Retired CHARLES G. DAWES Formerly V\ice- President of thie tCiit d States LLOYD B. \VILSON Formerly Chairmaln of the Board Chesapeake ald Potolac Telephone ( companies .. O. (COLBERT Rear Admiral. Director I . S. Coast and (Geodetic Survey EARNEST E. NORRIS President Southern Railway System JOHN OLIVER I.A GORE Associate Editor of the National (eographic Magazine J. R. IILDI)EBRAND Assistant Editor, National Geographic Magazine TIOMAS W. McKNEW Secretary, National Geographic Society ORGANIZED FOR "THE INCREASE AND DIFFUSION OF GEOGRAPHIC KNOWLEDGE" To carry out the purposes for which it was founded On November II, 1035. in a flight sponsored jointly sixty-one years ago, the National Geographic Society pub- by the National Geographic Society and the .S. Army lishes this Magazine monthly. All receipts are invested Air Corps, the world's largest balloon, Explorer II, as in The Magazine itself or expended directly to promote cended to the world altitude record of 72,305 feet. geographic knowledge. Capt. Albert W. Stevens and Capt. Orvil A. Anderson Articles and photographs are desired. For material took aloft in the gondola nearly a ton of scientific instru The Magazine uses, generous remuneration is made. ments, and obtained results of extraordinary value. In addition to the editorial and photographic surveys The National Geographic Society-U. S. Army Air constantly being made, Tile Society has sponsored more Forces Expedition, from a camp in southern Brazil, pho than 100 scientific expeditions, some of which required tographed and observed the solar eclipse of 1947. This years of field work to achieve their objectives, was the seventh expedition of The Society to observe a The Society's notable expeditions have pushed back total eclipse of the sun. the historic horizons of the southwestern United States The Society cooperated with Dr. William Beebe in to a period nearly eight centuries before Columbus deep-sea explorations off Bermuda, during which a world crossed the Atlantic. By dating the ruins of the vast record depth of 3,028 feet was attained. communal dwellings in that region, The Society's re searches solved secrets that had puzzled historians for The Society granted $25.00o, and in addition $75,0O0 three hundred years. was given by individual members, to the Government In Mexico, The Society and the Smithsonian Institu- when the congressional appropriation for tle purpose In Mexicouary, 3he Society anscovered the oldeSmithsonian Institu- was insufficient, and the finest of tile giant sequoia trees tion, January 16. 1939, discovered the oldest work of man in the Giant Forest of Sequoia National Park of California in the Americas for which we have a date. This slab of er thereby saved for the American people. stone is engraved in Mayan characters with a date which means November 4, 291 B. c. (Spinden Correlation). It One of the world's largest icefields and glacial systems antedates by 200 years anything heretofore dated in outside the polar regions was discovered in Alaska and America, and reveals a great center of early American Yukon by Bradford Washburn while exploring for The culture, previously unknown. Society and the Harvard Institute of Exploration, 1938. Copyright, 1949. by National Geographic Society. Washington, D. C. International Copyright secured. All rights reserved. Quedan reservados todos los derechos. Printed in U. S. A. Entered at the Post Office at Washington. D. C ., as Second Class Mail Matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Sec. 1103. Act of October 3. 1917, authorized July 1, 1918. Cover design and names registered in United States Patent Office. Marca Registrada.