National Geographic : 1949 Nov
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY GEOGRAPHIC ADMINISTRATION BUILDING SIXTEENTH AND M STREETS NORTHWEST. WASHINGTON 6, D. C. GILBERT GROSVENOR, President ROBERT V. FLEMING, Treasurer HERBERT A. POOLE, Assistant Treasurer LYMAN J. BRIGGS, Chairman, Research Committee ALEXANDER WETMORE, Vice-Chairman, Research Committee JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Vice-President THOMAS W. McKNEW. Secretary VERNON II. BREWSTER, Assistant Secretary MELVIN M. PAYNE, Assistant Secretary KURTZ M. IANSON, Assistant Secretary EXECUTIVE STAFF OF THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE GILBERT GROSVENOR, EDITOR JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Associate Editor J. R. IILDEBRAND Assistant Editor MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Assistant Editor JAMES M. DARLEY Chief Cartographer NEWMAN BUMSTEAD Research Cartographer CHARLES E. RIDDIFORD Cartographic Staff WELLMAN CIAMBERLIN Cartographic Staff RAYMOND W. WELCHI Director of Advertising GILBERT G. LA GORCE Assistant Director of Advertising GEORGE C. MARSHALL General of the Army, Retired Formerly Secretary of State WALTER S. GIIFFORI) Chairman of the Board American Telephone and Telegraph Co. WILLIAM V. PRATT Admiral U. S. Navy, Retired LYMAN J. BRIGGS Director National Bureau of Standards, Retired EILISIIA IIANSON Lawyer and Naturalist EMORY S. I .ANI) Vice Admiral Construction Corps, U. S. Navy, Retired; President, Air Transport Association GEORGE R. PUTNAM Commissioner of Lighthouses, Retired FRANKLIN L. FISHER Chief Illustrations Division, National Geographic Magazine FREDERICK SIMPICH Assistant Editor LEO A. BORAII Editorial Staff FREDERICK G. VOSBURGIH Editorial Staff LEONARD C. ROY Chief of School Service WILLIAM II. NICHOLAS Editorial Staff F. BARROWS COLTON Editorial Staff INEZ B. RYAN Research Assistant GEORGE CROSSETTE Research Assistant WILLIAM A. KINNEY Chief News Bulletin Service BOARD OF TRUSTEES ROBERT V. FLEMING President and Chairman of the Board, Riggs National Bank CHARLES F. KETTERING President General Motors Research Corporation LEROY A. LINCOLN President Metropolitan Life Insurance Company JUAN T. TRIPPE President Pan American Airways DAVID FAIRCHILD Special Agricultural Explorer, U. S. Department of Agriculture ALEXANDER WETMORE Secretary Smithsonian Institution GILBERT GROSVENOR Editor of National Geographic Magazine MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Assistant Editor, National Geographic Magazine FRANKLIN L. FISHER Chief Illustrations Division MAYNARD OWEN WILLIAMS Chief Foreign Editorial Staff W. ROBERT MOORE Foreign Editorial Staff LUIS MARDIEN Foreign Editorial Staff EDWIN L. WISIERD Chief Photographic Laboratory WALTER MEAYERS EDWARDS Illustrations Division KIP ROSS Illustrations Division MASON SITHIIERLANI) Editorial Staff II. II. ARNOLD General of the Air Force, Retired CIIARIE'S G. I)AWES Formerly Vice-President of the United States LLOYI) B. WILSON Formerly Chairman of the Board Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Conmpanies L. O. COLBERT Rear Admiral. Director I . S. Coast and Geodetic Survey ERNEST E. NORRIS President Soluthrn Railway System JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE Associate Editor of the National Geographic Magazine J. R. IIILDEBRANI) Assistant Editor, National geographicc Magazine TIIOMAS W. McKNEW Secretary, National Geographic Society ORGANIZED FOR "THE INCREASE AND DI To carry out the purposes for which it was founded sixty-one years ago, the National Geographic Society pub lishes this Magazine monthly. All receipts are invested in The Magazine itself or expended directly to promote geographic knowledge. Articles and photographs are desired. For material The Magazine uses, generous remuneration is made. In addition to the editorial and photographic surveys constantly being made, The Society has sponsored more than too scientific expeditions, some of which required years of field work to achieve their objectives. The Society's notable expeditions have pushed back the historic horizons of the southwestern I united States to a period nearly eight centuries before Columbus crossed tile Atlantic. By dating the ruins of the vast communal dwellings in that region, The Society's re searches solved secrets that had puzzled historians for three hundred years. In Mexico, The Society and the Smithsonian Institu tion, January 16, 1939, discovered the oldest work of man in the Americas for which we have a date. This slab of stone is engraved in Mayan characters with a date which means November 4. 291 B. c. (Spinden Correlation). It antedates by 200 years anything heretofore dated in America, and reveals a great center of early American culture, previously unknown. EFFUSION OF GEOGRAPHIC KNOWLEDGE" On November II, 1935, in a flight sponsored jointly by the National Geographic Society and the I'.S. Army Air Corps, the world's largest balloon, Explorer II, as cended to the world altitude record of 72,395 feet. Capt. Albert W. Stevens and Capt. Orvil A. Anderson took aloft in the gondola nearly a ton of scientific instru ments, and obtained results of extraordinary value. The National Geographic Society-U. S. Army Air Forces Expedition, from a camp in southern Brazil, pho tographed and observed the solar eclipse of 1947. This was the seventh expedition of The Society to observe a total eclipse of the sun. The Society cooperated with Dr. William Beebe in deep-sea explorations off Bermuda, during which a world record depth of 3,028 feet was attained. The Society granted $25,000, and in addition $75,00ooo was given by individual members, to the Government when tile congressional appi)ropriation for tile purp11ose was insufficient, and tilhefinest of tile giant sequoia trees in the Giant Forest of Sequoia National Park of California were thereby saved for the American people. One of the world's largest icefields and glacial systems outside the polar regions was discovered in Alaska and Yukon by Bradford Washburn while exploring for The Society and the Harvard Institute of Exploration, 1938. Copyright. 1949. by National Geographic Society. Washington. D .C . International Copyright secured. All rights reserved. Qluedan reserndos todos ,s derechs. 'rinted in U. S. A. Entered titthe Post Office at Washington. I). C. . as Second Class Mail Matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided fur in Sec. 1103, Act of October 3, 1917. authorized July 1, 1918. Cover design and names registered in United States Patent Office. Marca Registrada.