National Geographic : 1949 Dec
The Society's M ODERN and ancient geography are effectively combined in the new 10 color map of Classical Lands of the Mediterranean, which comes to the 1,850,000 members of the National Geographic Society with this issue of their NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE.* The new chart, a companion to The So ciety's map of Bible Lands and the Cradle of Western Civilization, distributed with the December, 1946, NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC, is drawn on the generous scale of 43.4 miles to the inch. It is an indispensable aid to stu dents and also affords a fascinating refresher course in the rise of civilization. Two hundred and seventy historical notes, printed in red, appear on the new map. Thus the chart carries some 2,600 words of notes, as well as 3,200 place names, without over crowding or impairing legibility. Modern and Ancient Names Listed The notes provide hours of entertaining reading. The double listing of ancient and modern place names is an incomparable aid in historical or geographical research. Modern official place names are listed first, with ancient names directly beneath or beside them in brackets. Unofficial or Anglicized names, honored only through long usage, have been omitted. For example, the island of Corfu, off the southern tip of Albania, is listed as Kerkira (Corcyra); Florence, Italy, is Firenze (Florentia); Constantinople, Turkey, is Istanbul (Byzantium). Regional names designate areas as they existed in ancient times. On the new map, Liguria, in Italy, extends as far north as the Po River, its expanse in the days of Caesar Augustus. The modern Province of Liguria is a narrow coastal strip stretching from the French border east to La Spezia. Calabria, on the map, identifies the "heel" of Italy's "boot." Today Calabria is the "toe." The name was switched from heel to toe some twelve and a half centuries ago. All of Italy, Greece, and Albania fall within the borders of the new map, along with parts of eight other countries and the islands of Malta, the Dodecanese, and Crete. Many areas of the new map recall vividly the heritage bequeathed us by historic peoples and places of long ago. Nearly 40 centuries ago the Minoan kings on the island of Crete were men of vast wealth. Here they built huge palaces of stone. Their people worshiped the bull as a sacred animal. Their craftsmen made pottery and engraved metal of high artistic merit. New Map of Classical Lands On Crete arose the well-known legend of Theseus, the Athenian, who came to the island, entered its fabulous labyrinth, and there slew in his stronghold the Minotaur, a monster half bull and half man who fed upon human flesh. The map of ancient Greece recalls the haunts of philosophers (Socrates, Plato); poets (Homer, Sappho); warriors (Leonidas); sculptors (Phidias); and statesmen (Themis tocles, Pericles). One of the map's six insets shows ancient Athens, with historic spots listed. There is the Grove of Academus, where Plato taught and whence comes our English word "acad emy"; the Lyceum where Aristotle gathered with his pupils; and Piraeus, whose impor tance as a port was visualized by Themis tocles as early as 500 B. C. Italian place names and notes recall the early Etruscans; the building of Rome on its seven hills; the days of the Republic when Cicero and Cato held forth in the Forum; and the era of the emperors, from the mighty Julius Caesar to the weaker monarchs of a later day who finally succumbed to the bar barians from the north.t Scanning the map, the reader will be re minded of the martial exploits of the Caesars, Hannibal, and Alexander. Scenes of decisive land and naval engagements are noted, along with ruins and sites of dead cities as important to the ancients as are London, New York, and Paris to our modern world. Guide to St. Paul's Journeys On The Society's map of Bible Lands, the missionary journeys of St. Paul were outlined in an inset. On the new map most of these historic travels may be followed in detail. Thessaloniki, capital of Macedonia and the modern Salonika, knew St. Paul well. How he and Silas preached to the Christians there is told in Acts 17, and I and II Thessalonians are addressed to them. Acts 17 also tells of St. Paul's appearance in the market in Athens, where he disputed with the Epicureans and the Stoics-an ex ample of the epic clash between Greek philo sophical teachings and Christianity. * Members may obtain additional copies of the map of Classical Lands of the Mediterranean (and of all standard maps published by The Society) by writing to the National Geographic Society, Washington 6, D. C. Prices, in United States and Possessions, 504 on paper; $1 on linen; Index, 25(. Outside United States and Possessions, 75- on paper; $1.25 on linen; Index, 50<. All remittances payable in U. S. funds. Postage prepaid. t See, in the NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE: "The Roman Way," by Edith Hamilton, November, 1946.