National Geographic : 2010 Mar
90 90 15 15 20 89 30 26 20 20 26 287 26 89 26 89 189 191 14 16 310 212 287 287 191 189 191 191 191 SHOSHONE NATIONAL FOREST SHOSHONE NATIONAL FOREST GALLATIN NATIONAL FOREST GALLATIN NATIONAL FOREST CARIBOU- TARGHEE NATIONAL FOREST CARIBOU-TARGHEE NATIONAL FOREST CARIBOU- TARGHEE N.F. BRIDGER- TETON NATIONAL FOREST BRIDGER- TETON NATIONAL FOREST CUSTER NATIONAL FOREST BEAVERHEAD- DEERLODGE NATIONAL FOREST SHOSHONE NATIONAL FOREST JOHN D. ROCKEFELLER, JR. MEMORIAL PARKWAY YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK GRAND TETON NATIONAL PARK Cody Ennis Cameron Dubois Lander Laurel Jackson Livingston Bozeman Island Park Rexburg Blackfoot West Yellowstone Pocatello Idaho Falls Dillon Chubbuck Columbus Lima WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION CROW INDIAN RES. FORT HALL INDIAN RESERVATION Norris Geyser Basin WIND RIVER RANGE AB SAROKA RANGE WYOMI NG RANGE SNAKE RIVER PLAIN MADISON RANGE BLACKFOOTMTS. Northe rn Range Lamar Valley Madison Valley MONTANA IDAHO WYOMING Baker Mountain Horn Mountain Cougar 2 Mill Creek Eightmile Jack Creek Hayden Toadflax Rosebud Cedar Creek Buffalo Fork Quadrant Mt. Slough Creek Mollie s Gibbon Meadows South Fork Pinnacle Peak Lava Mountain Green River Black Butte Big Piney Bold Mountain Buffalo Butte Creek Greybull River Huckleberry Pacific Creek Rim Whiskey Basin Popo Agie Prospect Snake River Pahaska Washakie Everts 471 527 Druid Peak Delta Delta Sub Group Cougar Creek Canyon Bechler Agate Blacktail Deer Plateau Centennial Eagle Creek Black Mountain Horse Creek Beartrap Sage Creek Bitch Creek Bishop Mountain Biscuit Basin Chagrin River Dog Creek Carter Mountain Absaroka Antelope Beartooth East Fork Elk Fork Creek Phantom Springs Sunlight 4 4 4 8 8 8 8 8 8 6 6 6 6 8 8 8 3 2 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 4 4 4 4 4 7 7 7 7 13 10 10 19 25 13 13 10 10 YEARLY MORTALITY About 20 percent of Yellow- stone Park wolves die each year half from attacks by other wolves, most of the rest from disease such as distemper. Outside, nearly 30 percent die, most killed illegally or legally because of livestock predation. PACK SIZE AND RANGE Staking territories that cover 200 to 500 square miles, packs average ten members in the shelter of national parks and six on other lands. LIVESTOCK LOSS In 2008, 83 wolves (including eight entire packs) were legally killed in the Greater Yellowstone Area because of predation on at least 111 sheep, 60 cattle, and 6 other domestic animals. RINGING THE VALLEYS Forested uplands pro- vide wolves safe cover, a pattern revealed by packs clustered around the Madison Valley. PRIVATE SANCTUARY The large Beartrap pack finds protection on the ranch of a conservationist who raises bison, which wolves usually avoid in favor of easier wild prey like elk or deer. BEYOND THE INTERSTATE No pack has lasted long above southern Montana's interstate corridor easily crossed where open ranchland puts them in conflict with humans. TERRITORIAL BATTLES Many wolves of the Slough Creek pack in the park's north were killed by other wolves in 2008. Survivors scattered, and the pack's range was usurped by the Druid Peak pack and others. PACK BEHAVIOR Wolf packs by nature constantly change: Wolves compete for breed- ing opportunities (only one pair per pack usually breeds), and both males and females split off to form or join other packs. LONE WOLVES Up to 20 percent of wolves in the northern Rockies travel alone but are always looking to start or join a pack. ON THE MOVE Wolves travel on average 60 miles from their pack when seeking a mate or new pack. One from Montana went 500 miles into British Columbia, where it was killed in a legal hunt. YELLOWSTONE WOLF PACKS From the epicenter of Yellow- stone National Park, reintroduced wolves quickly spread across the Greater Yellowstone Area (right). Most of the suitable wild habitat (green) is filled, and pop- ulations are probably close to saturation at about 450 wolves, 124 of them in Yellowstone Park. Packs pushing beyond these areas seldom survive. WILLIAM E. MCNULTY, NG STAFF; ALEX TAIT, INTERNATIONAL MAPPING SOURCES: ED BANGS AND MIKE JIMENEZ, U.S. FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE; CAROLYN SIME AND ADAM MESSER, MONTANA FISH, WILDLIFE & PARKS; DOUGLAS W. SMITH, YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. DECEMBER 2008 DATA Reintroduction sites Canadian wolves airlifted into Yellowstone in 1995 and 1996 Land ownership National Park System National Forest System or wilderness area Private or Bureau of Land Management 0mi 20 0km 20 Observed pack territory Extent of wolf sightings for each pack where available Pack name 8 Established wolf pack Circles mark the center of a pack's territory and show the number of wolves per pack. Data from the end of 2008, the most recent available.