National Geographic : 1930 Jan
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY GEOGRAPHIC ADMINISTRATION BUILDINGS SIXTEENTH AND M STREETS NORTHWEST, WASHINGTON, D. C . GILBERT GROSVENOR, President O. P . AUSTIN, Secretary JOHN JOY EDSON, Treasurer FREDERICK V. COVILLE, Chairman Committee on R JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Vice-President GEO. W . HUTCHISON, Associate Secretary HERBERT A. POOLE, Assistant Treasurer esearch EDWIN P. GROSVENOR, General Counsel EXECUTIVE STAFF OF THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE GILBERT GROSVENOR. EDITOR WILLIAM J. SHOWALTE Assistant Editor JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Associate Editor ;R RALPH A. GRAVES Assistant Editor C] J. R. HILDEBRAND, Chief of School Service FRANKLIN L. FISHER hief of Illustrations Division BOARD OF TRUSTEES JOHN JOY EDSON WILLIAM HOWARD TAFT Chairman of the Board, Wash- Chief Justice of the United States ingrton Loan & Trusrt Comn DAVID FAIRCHILD In charge of Agricultural Ex plorations, U. S. Department of Agriculture C. HART MERRIAM Member National Academy of Sciences O. P . AUSTIN Statistician GEORGE R. PUTNAM Commissioner U. S. Bureau of Lighthouses THEODORE W. NOYES Editor of The Evening Star STEPHEN T. MATHER Formerly Director National Park Service EDWIN P. GROSVENOR Lawyer JOHN J. PERSHING General of the Armies of the United States C. M. CHESTER Rear Admiral U. S . Navy, For merly Supt. U. S. Naval Ob servatory J. HOWARD GORE Prof. Emeritus Mathematics, The George Washington University FREDERICK V. COVILLE Botanist, U. S. Department of Agriculture GEORGE SHIRAS, 3D Formerly Member U. S. Con gress, Faunal Naturalist and Wild-Game Photographer JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE Associate Editor National Geo graphic Magazine ROBERT V. FLEMING President Riggs National Bank CALVIN COOLIDGE Formerly President of the United States CHARLES G. DAWES American Ambassador to Great Britain JOHN BARTON PAYNE Chairman American Red Cross A. W . GREELY Arctic Explorer, Major General U. S. Army GILBERT GROSVENOR Editor of National Geographic Magazine GEORGE OTIS SMITH Director U. S . Geological Survey O. H. TITTMANN Formerly Superintendent I. S . Coast and Geodetic Survey JOHN FOOTE, M. D. Dean and Professor of Pediatrics, Georgetown University ORGANIZED FOR "THE INCREASE AND DIFFUSION OF GEOGRAPHIC KNOWLEDGE" TO carry out the purposes for which it was founded forty-two years ago the National Geo graphic Society publishes this Magazine monthly. All receipts are invested in the Magazine itself or expended directly to promote geographic knowledge. ARTICLES and photographs are desired. For material which the Magazine can use, generous remuneration is made. Contributions should be accompanied by addressed return envelope and postage. IMMEDIATELY after the terrific eruption of the world's largest crater, Mt. Katmai, in Alaska, a National Geographic Society expedition was sent to make observations of this remarkable phenom enon. Four expeditions have followed and the ex traordinary scientific data resulting given to the world. In this vicinity an eighth wonder of the world was discovered and explored--"The Valley of Ten Thou sand Smokes," a vast area of steaming, spouting fissures. As a result of The Society's discoveries this area has been created a National Monument by proclamation of the President of the United States. AT an expense of over $50,000 The Society sent a notable series of expeditions into Peru to investigate the traces of the Inca race. Their discoveries form a large share of our knowledge of a civilization waning when Pizarro first set foot in Peru. THE Society also had the honor of sub scribing a substantial sum to the expedition of Admiral Peary, who discovered the North Pole, and has contributed $55,000 to Commander Byrd's Antarctic Expedition. NOT long ago The Society granted $25,000, and in addition $75,000 was given by individual members to the Government when the congressional appropriation for the purpose was insufficient, and the finest of the giant sequoia trees of California were thereby saved for the American people. THE Society has conducted extensive excava tions at Pueblo Bonito, New Mexico, where prehistoric peoples lived in vast communal dwellings before the days of Columbus; it is sponsoring an orni thological survey of Venezuela, and is maintaining an important photographic and botanical expedition in Yunnan Province, China. TO further the study of solar radiation in re lation to long range weather forecastings, The Society has appropriated $65,000 to enable the Smith sonian Institution to establish a station for five years on Mt. Brukkaros, in Southwest Africa. Copyright, 1929, by National Geographic Society, Washington, D. C ., in the United States and Great Britain. All rights reserved. Entered at the Post Office at Washington, D. C ., as Second-Class Mail Matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Sec. 1103. Act of October 3. 1917, authorized July 1, 1918. Cover design and names registered in United States Patent Office.