National Geographic : 1931 Mar
CRUSADER CASTLES OF THE NEAR EAST Photograph by Walter L. Wright PILGRIM MOUNT, THE RESIDENCE OF RAYMOND OF TOULOUSE The port of Tripoli, a mile away, was the capital of the County of Tripoli and was one of the last points to be surrendered by the Crusaders (see text, page 380). tion of the citizens, and received it as a fief from the King of Jerusalem, who was present at the taking of the city and whose liegeman he became." At the extreme north of Syria lies An tioch, the city where "the disciples were first called Christians." This was the first city in Syria to yield to the Crusading armies. No sooner had they besieged and captured it than they were themselves be sieged by a Moslem army from the east. They were so worn by disease and star vation that it seemed they could hold out no longer. At the appropriate moment there came to one Peter Bartholomew the vision of "the Holy Lance." The finding of this sacred relic filled the famished Crusading army with miraculous zeal. They rushed upon the besiegers, took them wholly by surprise, and routed the host, capturing all their treasure and provisions. This occurrence, while saving Antioch, came near to defeating the whole enterprise, for from it developed a bitter quarrel be tween Raymond, who supported the au thenticity of the miracle, and Bohemond, who claimed it a pious fraud. Antioch became the capital of a Cru sader principality that lasted for 170 years. The family of Bohemond was the ruling house. It was subject to the Kingdom of Jerusalem, but existed in true feudal style as an almost independent principality, fa mous for the luxury of its court. Later the families of Raymond and Bohemond inter married and a closer union was formed. Little remains to-day of Crusader antiq uities in the Antioch district. Earthquakes, wars, and building operations have de stroyed both ancient and medieval relics.* A line of Moslem cities, each a sort of city State with outlying dependencies, stretched from north to south east of the Lebanon Range. Each of these cities had its castle or citadel, with outlying castles homes of lesser lords, who maintained themselves by plundering expeditions against the neighboring Crusader posses sions or who joined their city prince in some more united campaign against the foreign invader. *See "Antioch the Glorious," by William H. Hall, in the NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE for August, 1920.