National Geographic : 1934 Jan
A FORGOTTEN VALLEY OF PERU Drawn by Newman Bumstead IN THE HEART OF PERU LIES A VOLCANIC AREA OF FORGOTTEN TOWNS AND DESERTED VILLAGES Valley. That information, combined with what we have learned since completion of the expedition (mainly through the dili gent research work of Mr. Philip Ainsworth Means, author of "Ancient Civilizations of the Andes"), gives us an interesting history of the valley. COLCA VALLEY PEOPLE ORIGINATED IN A VOLCANO The ancient inhabitants of the Colca Val ley, whose descendants still occupy it, were the Collahuas, or Collaguas. According to their own legends, they had their origin in a snow-covered conical volcano named Col laguata, in a neighboring province. They came out of the mountain and down into the valley of the Colca, drove out some scattered tribes already there, and estab lished themselves. Their name they took from the holy mountain, Collaguata, whence they came. From a document written in the valley before the visit of inspection made by the Viceroy Don Francisco de Toledo (about 1570-1575), it appears the Collahuas were wont to bind the heads of their chil dren very tightly in such a way as to make them tall and conical, like the sacred volcano Collaguata. On these artificially shaped heads they wore very tall conical hats without brims. These usages were subsequently stopped by Toledo.