National Geographic : 1937 Aug
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY GEOGRAPHIC ADMINISTRATION BUILDINGS SIXTEENTH AND M STREETS NORTHWEST, WASHINGTON, D. C. GILBERT GROSVENOR, President JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Vice-President ROBERT V. FLEMING, Treasurer GEORGE W. HUTCHISON, Secretary HERBERT A. POOLE, Assistant Treasurer THOMAS W. McKNEW, Assistant Secretary LYMAN J. BRIGGS, Chairman; ALEXANDER WETMORE, Vice Chairman, Committee on Research EXECUTIVE STAFF OF THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE GILBERT GROSVENOR, EDITOR JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Associate Editor J. R. HILDEBRAND Assistant Editor MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Assistant Editor McFALL KERBEY Chief of School Service LEO A. BORAH Editorial Staff ROBERT V. FLEMING President and Chairman of the Board, Riggs National Bank WALTER S. GIFFORD President American Telephone and Telegraph Co. FREDERICK SIMPICH Assistant Editor ALBERT H. BUMSTEAD Chief Cartographer E. JOHN LONG Editorial Staff BOARD OF TRUSTEES CHARLES EVANS HUGHES Chief Justice of the United States WILLIAM V. PRATT Rear Admiral U. S. Navy, Retired DAVID FAIRCHILD RAYMOND S. PATTON Special Agricultural Explorer, U. S. Rear Admiral, Director, U. S. Coast Department of Agriculture and Geodetic Survey C. HART MERRIAM Member National Academy of Sciences LYMAN J. BRIGGS Director National Bureau of Standards GEORGE R. PUTNAM Commissioner of Lighthouses, Retired THEODORE W. NOYES Editor of The Evening Star GEORGE W. HUTCHISON Secretary National Geographic Society ALEXANDER WETMORE Assistant Secretary, Smithsonian Institution GILBERT GROSVENOR Editor of National Geographic Magazine J. HOWARD GORE Prof. Emeritus Mathematics, The George Washington University ELISHA HANSON Lawyer and Naturalist FRANKLIN L. FISHER Chief Illustrations Division MAYNARD OWEN WILLIAMS Chief Foreign Editorial Staff CHARLES MARTIN Chief Photographic Laboratory LEONARD C. ROY Editorial Staff JOHN J. PERSHING General of the Armies of the United States GEORGE OTIS SMITH Formerly Director U. S. Geological Survey O. H. TITTMANN Formerly Superintendent U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE Associate Editor of the National Geographic Magazine CHARLES G. DAWES Formerly Vice-President of the United States GEORGE SHIRAS, 3D Formerly Member U. S. Con gress, Faunal Naturalist and Wild-Game Photographer OSCAR WESTOVER Major General, Chief, U. S. Army Air Corps CHARLES F. KETTERING President, General Motors Research Corporation ORGANIZED FOR "THE INCREASE AND DIFFUSION OF GEOGRAPHIC KNOWLEDGE" To carry out the purposes for which it was founded forty-nine years ago, the National Geographic Society publishes this Magazine monthly. All receipts are invested in The Magazine itself or expended directly to promote geographic knowledge. Articles and photographs are desired. For material which The Magazine can use, generous remuneration is made. Contributions should be accompanied by addressed return envelope and postage. Immediately after the terrific eruption of the world's largest crater, Mt. Katmai, in Alaska, a National Geo graphic Society expedition was sent to make observa tions of this remarkable phenomenon. Four expeditions have followed and the extraordinary scientific data resulting given to the world. In this vicinity an eighth wonder of the world was discovered and explored-"The Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes," a vast area of steam ing, spouting fissures. As a result of The Society's dis coveries this area has been created a National Monument by proclamation of the President of the United States. The Society cooperated with Dr. William Beebe in a deep-sea exploration of underseas life off Bermuda, during which a world record depth of 3,028 feet was attained August 15, 1934, enabling observations of hitherto unknown submarine creatures. The Society also had the honor of subscribing a sub stantial sum to the expedition of Admiral Peary, who discovered the North Pole, and contributed $100,000 to Admiral Byrd's Antarctic Expeditions. The Society granted $25,000, and in addition $75,000 was given by individual members, to the Government when the congressional appropriation for the purpose was insufficient, and the finest of the giant sequoia trees in the Giant Forest of Sequoia National Park of California were thereby saved for the American people. The Society's notable expeditions to New Mexico have pushed back the historic horizons of the southwestern United States to a period nearly eight centuries before Columbus crossed the Atlantic. By dating the ruins of the vast communal dwellings in that region, The Society's researches have solved secrets that have puzzled historians for three hundred years. The Society is sponsoring an ornithological survey of Venezuela. On November 11, 1935, in a flight sponsored jointly by the National Geographic Society and the U. S. Army Air Corps, the world's largest balloon, Explorer II, as cended to an officially recognized altitude record of 72,395 feet. Capt. Albert W. Stevens and Capt. Orvil A. Ander son took aloft in the gondola nearly a ton of scientific instruments, and obtained results of extraordinary value. Copyright, 1937, by National Geographic Society, Washington, D. C. International copyright secured. All rights reserved. Quedan reservados todos los derechos. Printed in U. S. A. Entered at the Post Office at Washington, D. C ., as Second-Class Mail Matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Sec. 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, authorized July 1, 1918. Cover design and names registered in United States Patent Office. Marca Registrada.