National Geographic : 1939 Jan
THE TRANSFORMATION OF TURKEY better food than bulgur or pek mez. Bulgur is the national cereal, homemade, un advertised. It is wheat, cracked up, dried on the roof, again cracked, toasted in the oven, and finally used as the basis for sun dry dishes, after the fashion of Italy's ever-pres ent polenta. Pek mez is syrup of the grape, boiled down to a sticky residual essence and smeared on bread or made into sauce (page 32). Children thrive on it; the old grow younger. COLLEGE BOYS BRING THEIR OWN BEDDING AND FOOD One group of boys in this school bring their own bedding and food. The Turk ish Government TI furnishes tui Car tion, one suit of stand clothes, and Hittit books. The State half also pays for one teacher and a cook. Photograph by Maynard Owen Williams IE HITTITE ANCESTOR OF THE COIN EAGLE HAD TWO HEADS rved in the bull-headed Sphinx at Hiiyiik (Euyuk), a spread eagle has been ing on two rabbits for 3.500 years. Russia and Austria, inheriting the te religious emblem, kept the two heads, but en route to the quarter and dollar, one head was lost. So there are two cooks in the Nilsons' kitchen, one for the family, the other to prepare the bulgur and other products brought by these students from their fathers' steep acres. For the other students who pay, tuition costs $40 a year; board is $165. Kayseri is being rebuilt to match its new industrial plants, a cotton mill and an air plane factory. Modern concrete buildings and paved streets already are appearing among the time-eroded ruins. Here at the foot of majestic Erciyas Dagl (Mount Argaeus), capped, in Turkey, by Ararat, where Noah beached, and a few other peaks, wave after wave of ag gressive might has hurled its strength: Romans under Tiberius, Tigranes (Dik ran), of Armenia, Shapur (Sapor) the Per sian, and Justinian, whose building mania caused it to be revamped as a fortress. "Our simple agricultural folk are learning new living standards through the establish ment of industries," remarked the Governor of the province. "The purpose of the Gov ernment in industrializing these isolated centers is to provide an outlet for native products of the soil and to spread culture."