National Geographic : 1939 Jan
THE TRANSFORMATION OF TURKEY Republican Turkey has freed itself from the domination of Mohammedan priesthood and banned religious teaching in the schools. All sects are permitted to worship in their own fashion. On Easter Sunday I found Greek Or thodox and Ar menian churches crowded, censers swinging, priests chanting in or nate, bejeweled robes. The service ended, my friend showed me these same dignitaries emerging from the doors appar eled like ordi nary citizens. Neither men nor women of re ligious orders are permitted to appear on the streets in clerical garb. The muezzin of today may be clad in anything from a hand-me down business suit to plus-fours. Dutifully he mounts the inner call the Faithful. © Kurt and Margot Lubinski TWELVE YEARS AGO THESE FACES WOULD HAVE BEEN VEILED One more old-fashioned woman shields herself with her hand-bag, and warns a friend. Beside her, in a modish black turban and head shawl, is a younger woman to whom the camera is a matter-of-fact feature of parades and life. spiral of the minaret to The mass of the people beneath pass on their way, unheeding, ap parently oblivious to the quavering suppli cation. Yet straggling worshipers are to be found in the mosques at most hours. THE GLORY OF BYZANTIUM Of that army of American and European cruise-ship adventurers who trudge beneath the soaring dome of St. Sophia (page 4), how many are able to visualize the sur rounding area as it appeared during the height of Byzantine glory? * On St. So phia's south flank stretched a vast marble- paved square, the Augusteum. To the east and south of the square, which some writers liken to Venice's Piazza San Marco, stood the Senate House and the Palace; from the lofty elevation of the Kathisma the Em peror was able to gaze down on the gory sports of the Hippodrome. Near the location of the long-since van ished Hippodrome, in the court of the Palace of Constantine the Great, founder of the Byzantine Empire, mosaics of ex traordinary beauty have recently been *See "Constantinople Today," by Solita Solano, in the NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE, June, 1922.