National Geographic : 1939 Feb
FISHING IN PACIFIC COAST STREAMS tive, the Yellow stone, or Montana black-spotted, trout, Salmo lewisi (page 192 and Plate IV). Some coastal cutthroats which have migrated to salt water and grown to large size are called locally "steelhead cut throats." In clear, cold mountain streams this trout is abun dant, hiding among the rocks in riffles, in deep pools, under logs, and beneath overhang ing bushes. During early spring it mi grates into smaller streams, and when breeding grounds are reached male and female pair off over gravel riffles. The female ex cavates a nest two or three inches deep by turning over on her side and vigorously flex ing her tail against the bottom, the motion carrying her a little up stream and loosen ing some sand and gravel. The mate rial disturbed is carried downstream by the swift cur rent, the smaller particles farthest and the larger stones but a few inches. Photograph by B. Anthony Stewart PROOF OF THE FISHING--IN A CAN! At Requa, northern California, stands a packing plant where sportsmen bring their fresh-caught salmon to be tinned. Individual labels tell the folks back home that you caught the succulent contents with your own rod and line. From far and near, the angling brotherhood flocks here to the Klamath River during the early fall salmon run. The silvery giants are caught by trolling from rowboats. After some courtship activities the eggs are laid and fertilized, whereupon the female im mediately covers them with gravel by digging with her tail at the upper edge of the nest. Seepage of water among the small stones of the nest bottom supplies ample oxygen for the de velopment of the baby trout. In from three to six weeks the eggs hatch, the period in warm streams being shorter than in cold. A week or more after hatching, and when the yolk, or the food stored in the egg, has been nearly used up, the little light-brown trout make their way up through the gravel into the stream and soon begin to feed on minute or ganisms on the stones and in the water. Stomachs of cutthroat trout show that these fish in general eat whatever they can obtain aquatic insects such as May flies, stone flies, caddis flies, midges, black flies, and their nymphs or larvae; land insects which fall into the stream; such fresh-water crustaceans as crayfish, fresh-water shrimps (amphipods), fairy shrimp, and water fleas; and fish eggs, mostly those of salmon and trout. Cutthroats rise to the fly during the warmer seasons, or will take a small spinner. In spring a fly cast over a deep pool, near an over hanging bank, or among eddies in rapids, is almost certain to be struck. The gamy fish does most of its fighting below the surface.