National Geographic : 1939 Dec
00 Photograph byVoolman "cMY FATHERLAND, MY FORTUNE AND JOY, HOW BEAUTIFUL THOU ART!" Estonian choristers, 17,000 strong, join in the national anthem at the giant Singing Festival held in Tallinn inJune, 1938. Every five years, formore than half a century, such huge gatherings have united in singing folk songs "born of the clouds and cold of the north" (page834). Dressed innational costume, 560 choirs took part in the festivities which marked the twentieth anniversary of independence, before audiences of 100,000. Estonia's songfests, during thedays ofRussian rule, ex pressed in music the national aspirations of the people.