National Geographic : 1900 Mar
GEOGRAPHIC MISCELLANEA disease, the commission states, has been so common in Luzon that the natives have to a large extent lost fear of it. All evidence points to the greatest care lessness in preventing its spread during Spanish times. Isolation of the sick and disinfection of the habitations seem not to have been attempted, and vaccina tion, even among the Spanish garrison, had not been carried out. Under these circumstances it could be no surprise that after the American occupation the disease should appear and even become epidemic; but the prompt action of Dr Bournes, chief health officer of Manila, who caused the Spanish garrison still in Manila and the natives and Chinese within the city to be vaccinated on the appearance of the disease early last year (1899), has afforded most satisfactory results. Other diseases especially affecting the natives are: leprosy, of which there were a hundred cases in the San Lazaro Hospital, all coming from Manila and the country surrounding that city ; tuberculosis, of the extent of which ac curate statistics are impossible to obtain, but the facts would indicate that it is a very common disease; beriberi, well known among the natives and appar ently epidemic and endemic in its nature. Skin diseases, as might be expected, are also prevalent. Of the diseases affecting Americans, dysentery is responsible for the greatest amount of invalidation and the highest mortality. Typhoid fever, while less prevalent than dysentery, is, however, a frequent affection among Americans. Malarial fevers would seem not to be very common. Other diseases which while not prevalent affect foreigners to a considerable extent are tuberculosis, dengue, and tropical ulcers. While outfitting at Hongkong, and later on their return to Hongkong en route to America, the commission improved the opportunity to study the bubonic plague, which was still prevailing at that port. Two members of the party, Dr Barker and Mr Flint, also passed three weeks in India, where the great epi demic of plague was then raging. This is a brief summary of the results achieved by the expedition. Naturally the commissioners have not yet been able to complete the scientific portion of the work. They are now making careful studies of the material relating to beriberi, dysentery, malarial and typhoid fevers, leprosy, and the bubonic plague, and later will publish their results in complete form. GEOGRAPHIC MISCELLANEA THE United States steamer Nero in its survey for a Transpacific cable re corded one sounding near Guam Island of 5,269 fathoms-the deepest sea sounding ever recorded. REPORTS from Valparaiso, Chile, describe a fossil of the whale species dis covered on the north beach at Caldera. It is stated that the fossil measures about 32 feet and is almost perfectly preserved. WITH the completion of the triangulation between Chatham and Sumner Straits the work of triangulation in southeastern Alaska is ended, and the nec essary geodetic data for the preparation of maps have been obtained.