National Geographic : 1902 Sep
354 THE NATIONAL G in swamps and barren lands, while tracts moderately drained are covered with a heavy forest growth. EOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE (4) The capillary power of a sandy soil may be increased by the addition of either clay or humus. FOREST BOTANY SUGGESTS WHAT FOR THE NEW FORESTS OF MICHIGAN ? BY PROF. CHARLES A. DAVIS, UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN Professor Davis presented a number of suggestions for improvement of forest conditions in Michigan in the light of forest botany. These suggestions may be summarized as follows: (i) All vegetation which will grow should be protected in order that the soil may be covered. (2) Tree species, especially such as will grow on lands of the class avail able, must be protected from fire and cattle in order to reach commercial ma turity. (3) The tree species now growing upon these lands serve as nurse trees and soil cover until more valuable kinds can reestablish themselves, and will be come a source of revenue if allowed to develop. (4) The white pine will grow upon much of this land, and there is no foun dation for the current popular belief that this species will not grow in old pineries. (5) Belts of oak and poplar, both of which grow readily and are somewhat resistant to fire, could be planted for fire protection. (6) Foreign species, or those from other parts of the country or other soil conditions, should not be extensively planted until thoroughly tested in ex perimental tracts. THE MANAGEMENT OF MICHIGAN HARDWOOD FORESTS BY WALTER C. WINCHESTER, GRAND RAPIDS, MICHIGAN Mr Winchester's view of the forests of Michigan was that of the practical lumberman. He described the condi tions at present existing, and reviewed the operations of the lumber industries. " The lumberman buying timber lands today," said Mr Winchester, " is nat urally not in sympathy with the princi ples of forestry." All the products of the forest are utilized; even the ferns growing in the timber are picked and sold in the Chicago market to florists. In Mr Winchester's view the taxes on timber lands are very high, and some remedy must be found in the way of a rebate of taxes to persons who are will ing to hold their lands after cutting off the mature timber. In his opinion, the undergrowth, which springs up very rapidly on hemlock and cedar lands, will keep the ground from drying out. The protection of trees of fifty years' growth and under is necessary to pre serve large areas of hardwood lands for a new crop. The enactment of taxa tion laws was urged with this object in view, which would make it a business proposition.