National Geographic : 1903 Mar
120 THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE and burned him. He heard no noise, saw no fire, smelled nothing "except what he thought was his own body burning." There was no smoke, and the hot air came in through the grating without any appreciable rush or blast. His clothing did not take fire, and yet his back was very severely burned under his shirt. An interesting phenomenon noted by Mr Kennan was the stellar lightning which characterized the night eruptions. Several illustrations of this are given. The chapter on " Causes of the Ca tastrophe"' is worthy of a professional geologist, something that Mr Kennan does not profess to be. His belief is " that the volcanic discharge which de stroyed St Pierre came from a lateral fissure near the summit of the moun tain; that it did not contain any con siderable amount of gas; that it did not burst into flame, and that it did not cause death by asphyxiation." The death-dealing blast, according to Mr Kennan, was composed of superheated steam charged with fine dust. The weight of the dust carried by the steam depressed the blast so that it followed the slope of the mountain. The dust was hot enough to set fire'to inflam mable objects inside the houses, which did not catch fire from the outside, but from the inside. The volume is graphically illustrated from drawings by George Varian and from photographs by the author. The American Cotton Industry. By T. M. Young. Pp. 146. 5 x 712 inches. London : Methuen & Co. New York: Imported by Charles Scfibner's Sons. 1902. 75c. net. The author in the spring and early summer of 1902 visited the cotton-man ufacturing districts in New England and in the Southern States. He had been sent from England by the cotton manufacturers of Manchester, who de sired a careful investigation and com parison of the cotton spinning and weav- ing industry in England and the United States. It has been generally known for some years that the American cot ton factories were outstripping those in England. Mr Young, as a result of his study, does not think the American weaver is more intelligent or better paid than the British weaver, but that our advantage is (i) because American man agement is more economical of labor that is, we do not divert a skilled man's attention and time to the small things which an unskilled man can do just as well, and (2) because the American manager is alert for the newest inven tion, and adopts even inventions made in England before the English manager considers them. Year-book of the Department of Agri culture, 1901. Edited by Geo. Win. Hill. With plates and maps. Pp. 846, 6% x 9 inches. Washington : Government Printing Office, 1902. The Year-book for 1901 teems with important geographic material. The report of the Secretary takes 115 pages, and is followed by 33 articles on special topics, of which the following may be mentioned : "The Purpose of a Soil Survey." Milton Whitney. " Insects as Carriers and Spreaders of Disease." L. O. Howard. " The Future Demand for American Cotton." J. L. Watkins. "The Timber Resources of Alaska." Wm. L. Hall. " Progress in Plant and Animal Breed ing." Willet M. Hayes. "Agricultural Seeds-Where Grown, How Handled." A. J. Pieters. "The Prairie Dog of the Great Plains." C. Hart Merriam. " Grazing in the Forest Reserves." Filibert Roth. "Agriculture in the Tropical Islands of the United States." O. F. Cook. " Little-Known Fruit Varieties Con sidered Worthy of Wider Dissemina tion." Wm. A. Taylor.