National Geographic : 1913 Feb
Photo by Frederick Moore MONTENEGRIN SOLDIERS ON THE HEIGHTS ABOVE THE AUSTRIAN COAST partisans of the faith, who encouraged and employed the spirit of Islam, which the great majority of the ignorant people of Turkey possess. Some of the Turks fight well-as, for instance, at Adrianople, at Scutari, and at Jannina-and some do not. The trouble rests with the organiza tion of the Turkish government, which is so incompetent and corrupt that no standard of fighting efficiency can be maintained. If any one army or single garrison fights well it is because that garrison is properly controlled and led. THE REASON WHY THE TURK HAS FAILED As a whole the nation cannot and will not, because of internal political jealous ies, work in unison, work zealously and honestly. The killing of Nazim Pasha is a case in point, and also the memorable delinquency of the palace clique in ignor- ing persistently the appeals of Osman Pasha, the commander of Plevna, for re lief and reinforcements in 1877. Many of the Turks would rather see the enemy win than that their political rivals should hold office. As this war has brought out, there are great defects of organization in the Turkish army. Whole regiments, for in stance, were sent to the front during the mobilization with few or no officers, the officers joining the men in the camp or even on the battlefield. In former days, as, for example, at Plevna-as no doubt in Adrianople, Scu tari, and Jannina today-men and offi cers shared the hardships in common, suffered together, and sympathized one with another. Too many officers of the new school, who reside mostly at Con stantinople, do not know their men, and are consequently mistrusted by them.