National Geographic : 1914 Jul
EXPLORERS OF A NEW KIND made in New Hampshire from the colo nies of this species that were planted a year before, and examination showed that they were practically all successful. In these collections Ioo,ooo parasitized eggs were secured and will be used this season for colonization in New Hamp shire. LOSING THEIR EVIL POWERS On the whole, then, the outlook is fa vorable. The work of the government and the different States has resulted in bringing about infinitely better conditions in New England, so far as these pests are concerned, during the past nine years; and while it is practically certain that both gipsy-moth and brown-tail moth will gradually spread to the westward, it is equally sure that the imported natural enemies will come with them and the wilt disease and the fungous disease of the brown-tail as well; and this, with the knowledge which we have gained as to the best handling of the pests, will pre vent in all probability in any part of our country the disastrous results which we saw in Massachusetts in the years prior to 1905. THE NEED OF CONSERVING THE BEAUTY AND FREEDOM OF NATURE IN MODERN LIFE BY CHARLES W. ELIOT PRESIDENT EMERITUS OE HARVARD UNIVERSITY THE past hundred years have sup plied civilized mankind with a complete demonstration that the evils which attend the growth of modern cities and the factory system are too great for the human body to endure; yet these evils are the consequences, or results, of nineteenth-century civilization, and par ticularly of that form of liberty which the first half of the century developed individualism. Within the last 40 years a different form of liberty, the liberty of association and collective action, has be gun to check some of the evils fostered by individualism, and so to improve the human environment. The sources of the evils which afflict the population massed in cities are partly physical and partly mental or moral. The collective energies of society are now ac tively directed to the amelioration of bad physical conditions, and considerable im provements in this respect have already been made; and more are in sight. The study, even, of remedies for wrong men tal and moral conditions has hardly be gun; yet these are the fundamental evils which must be eradicated, if improved physical conditions are to produce their desired effects. It is therefore a very practical and ur gent inquiry: What influences in the en- vironment of civilized mankind make for mental health, for wholesome interests, for rational pleasures, and for exalting delight in the beauty, grace, and splendor of nature? By far the most important social study today is the study of the means of im proving men's emotion and thought en vironment from earliest youth to age. These means are both negative and posi tive-on the one hand they must shut out poisonous excitements and injurious pleasures, on the other they must develop all wholesome mental interests and en joyable activities of observation, memory, and imagination. IMPROVE OUR ENVIRONMENT POSITIVELY AS WELL AS NEGATIVELY In order to cure the destructive evils of present urban life and the factory sys tem, it will not be enough to restrict the vices, to diminish the pressure of poverty, to prevent destructive diseases, and pro long the average human life. The human environment must be not only negatively but positively improved; so that the: whole people may have the opportunity to cultivate healthy tastes and interests,. to acquire just ideals of pleasantness and. beauty, and to learn the value toward. tranquil happiness of that living with.