National Geographic : 1915 Feb
could secure any information that would lead us to confirm or abandon our first ideas in regard to the identity of Tampu tocco and Machu Picchu. There is no reference to Machu Picchu in any of the chronicles. The most satisfactory accounts of Tampu-tocco occur in the writings of Montesinos. Fernando Montesinos was an ecclesiastical lawyer, who appears to have gone to Peru in 1629 as a follower of that well-known viceroy, the Count of Chinchon, whose wife contracted malaria, was cured by the use of Peruvian bark, or quinine, and was instrumental in the introduction of this bark into Europe-a fact which is commemorated by the bo tanical name of the genus cinchona. Montesinos appears to have given him self over entirely to historical research. He traveled extensively in Peru and wrote several books. His history of the Incas was spoiled by the introduction, in which he contended that Peru was peo pled by Armenians under the leadership of Ophir, the great-grandson of Noah! More recently, however, Sir Clements Markham, the dean of Peruvian archeol ogists, and other students of the history of the Incas, have been inclined to place greater credence in the statements of Montesinos. His references to Tampu tocco are of considerable value, because they seem to throw light on the former history of Machu Picchu. ANCIENT INVASIONS OF PERU Montesinos states that during the rule of one of the Amautas, or kings, of those whom we refer to generally as the mega lithic people, racial invasions took place. The invaders came to Peru from the regions south of Tucuman, in northwest ern Argentina, and continued as far as the upper Vilcanota Valley. There also came over the Andes at that time large numbers of people seeking new lands, fleeing from a race of giants (possibly the Patagonians or Araucanians), who had expelled them from their own lands. On their journey they passed over plains, swamps, and jungles. These racial migrations appear to have continued for some time. Montesinos tells us that in the reign of Pachacuti VI, the sixty-second Peruvian Amauta, who reigned about the time of Christ, there SILVER RINGS AND A DECORATED BRONZE BRACELET OF PROBABLY THE INCA PERIOD Found at Machu Picchu by the National Geographic Society-Yale University Expedi tion. I~4 times natural size. came from the Andes, as well as from Brazil and the north, large hordes of fierce people, who waged wars of long duration. During these wars the ancient or "megalithic" civilization that had ex isted up to that time was destroyed. The king, Pachacuti VI, was more re ligious than warlike. His soothsayers and priests frightened him with many bad omens; so that, filled with anguish and melancholy, he did nothing but make sac rifices to the deities. Meanwhile he or dered his governors and captains to for tify the strategic points and make prep arations for defense against the great hordes of invaders, the fiercest of which came from the south with large armies, laying waste the fields and capturing the cities and towns.